The Liberty Science Center

Science lovers in New Jersey are now able to experience the cosmos in a whole new way—on the largest planetarium in the western hemisphere.  Reporter Maddie Orton took a trip to the Liberty Science center to see for herself.

TRANSCRIPT

Science lovers in New Jersey are now able to experience the cosmos in a whole new way -- on the largest planetarium in the Western Hemisphere.

Reporter Maddie Orton took a trip to the Liberty Science Center to see for herself.

We're now flying down into the heart of this cloud of gas.

When it comes to planetariums, size matters.

That's why Liberty Science Center in Jersey City, New Jersey, upgraded the organization's former IMAX movie dome to an 89-foot full-dome planetarium, making it the largest in the Western Hemisphere.

I mean, it's so big that the storied planetarium at the Natural History Museum can fit inside it.

And when it comes to planetariums, size really makes a difference.

Because it simulates what it would be like being out in Montana or Big Sky Country, where there's not light pollution, where they're not built.

Thanks to $5 million in upgrades, President and CEO Paul Hoffman says the new full-dome planetarium now feels like a fully-immsersive space experience.

The dome was there, but everything else is new, including the screen that goes within the dome.

So it's 10 projectors, and the image is seamlessly digitally sewn together.

The universe is full of examples of galaxies that have collided this way in the past.

We know it's a fairly common thing.

So, when I first flipped the switch on this, it was amazing.

I just sat there for hours, enjoying the images and taking it in.

While the planetarium has the capability to run films, the new setup also allows the Science Center to provide live shows with a host who can maneuver the audience's view of the sky from a tablet.

According to Hoffman, it takes a computer-server room about the size of his office to make that magic happen.

[ Children exclaim ] But Planetarium Director Mike Shanahan says it's worth it.

We can follow the interest of the audience, for example, any direction we want to.

You can assess what they're interested in.

If they want to see a black hole, we can bring on a black hole.

If they want to hear about the recent Falcon Heavy launch, we can show that video.

And it allows you to allow for questions back and forth.

That ability to converse with the audience let's Shanahan really drive home the concepts he teaches, which is especially valuable because Liberty Science Center's planetarium shows correlate with New Jersey's student-learning standards in science.

You all are inside the actual, fabled rings of Saturn.

A planetarium really vividly brings things to life.

So if you're trying to explain the reasons for phases of the moon, for example, it's much more vivid to show how the moon changes in the planetarium sky like this than to do it just in the classroom.

And so putting all the resources of this sky overhead to help kids grasp the concepts of why eclipses happen, why the seasons change, distances in the universe.

These are all things we can demonstrate very vividly in this environment.

Hoffman says the Science Center will regularly change their planetarium shows to reflect what's happening in space research.

So, when you come here, you're gonna get the latest astronomy news, particularly when it's something visual -- a new image that's come back from an observatory somewhere in the world.

Or, right now, the death of Stephen Hawking, the great astrophysicist.

We have a presentation, what he discovered about black holes and the universe, that's part of the show.

And that means there will always be something new to pull visitors back into Liberty Science Center's orbit.

If you've ever used a step counter or a heart-rate sensor, you have used the same technology that biologists at Lenoir-Rhyne University are using to study herons.

Up next, we take a look at how the same GPS and tracking technology is being used on birds.

This is more than just a photo of a majestic Great Blue Heron.

The bird, by the way, is on Lake Norman.

It's near Charlotte.

No, this is also a picture of frustration.

It was kind of, like, aggravating that it was across the lake and not coming to the bait bin.

But it was exciting to see it, and get to see actually how big it was.

And here's what makes these photos images of feathered frustration.

Usually we put something over his head, also, which seems to calm them down, if they can't really see.

And so it's a multi-person job.

Somebody has to be holding the bird, and somebody else has to be taking the measurements.

Like that.

The students in the Environmental Club at Maiden High School want to catch, measure, tag, and release the heron.

It's part of a nationwide study of the great birds.

They've been learning how to do it safely -- for the bird and for themselves.

The tarsus is gonna be this part of his foot.

So it's gonna be from down here at his foot up to kind of that first joint.

So we're gonna take that measurement of the left and the right side of him.

We're also gonna measure his wing chord -- basically from here all the way to the tip of his wing.

And this is also what we would use whenever we do the culmen.

We would come up here and we would measure from the feathers all the way to the very tip end.

When we have done the ones in the past, we've gotten it within 30 to 45 minutes.

More on the study in a moment.

That box in the water behind the bird is filled with tiny fish.

There are 47 small and large traps underwater around the bait box.

The traps are designed to simply hold the bird, not injure it.

The plan calls for the bird to step in a trap on its way to the box.

The students would swoop in, quickly do their work, and release the bird.

The heron has other ideas.

It was cool to see it.

I mean, we all got up out of chairs, we started running down.

We saw him in the trap.

And he was stuck there pretty good when we got down there.

And when the doctor was, like, 15 feet away, he just took off into the air.

[ Sighs ] It was disappointing.

It was really disappointing.

Catching and studying the large birds hasn't always been disappointing for students in the Environmental Club.

These photos are from 2014.

The students helped capture and study a heron they named Big Blue.

It was also on Lake Norman.

And that takes us to that study of the great birds.

And then, of course, every bird is a mystery.

Every bird has a story to tell.

And they all tell different stories.

We have to learn to speak the birds' language.

And they don't speak in our language.

So we have to use this technology so they can tell us their story.

So, besides measuring the birds and taking a blood sample, each bird is fitted with a high-tech tracking device.

So, this is a mash-up from the GPS system of a smartphone with a Fitbit, all being solar powered.

We can measure, basically, the location of the bird in 'X,Y.'

So we can locate it on the globe.

We can also see how high it is above the surface.

And we also know what the bird is doing -- so whether it's flapping, going up and down, going side to side.

And it operates just like a Fitbit that people are wearing now.

So we actually have an annual fingerprint of how active the bird is.

130 Great Blue Herons and Great Egrets across the country have been outfitted with the devices over the past five years.

So, these things will communicate with the cellphone network, okay?

So, three times a day, it connects to the nearest cellphone tower and sends all the GPS coordinates of the bird to that cellphone tower.

And here's why that's important.

The data shows that heron, Big Blue, never leaves the Lake Norman area.

Based upon the GPS coordinates, we know that this bird, during the months of March and April, was using 65 acres of shoreline territory in order to catch enough fish to feed itself and its chicks.

And then, when we go to the non-breeding season, you can see that the amount of area has dropped quite a bit.

Now we're down to 27 acres.

And notice, no more visits to the colony.

And also, no more visits to some of these outlying places.

The bird can meet all of its needs in just 27 acres along this little piece of shoreline right here.

Other herons and egrets have ranges of hundreds, even thousands of miles to meet their needs.

They're not making distinctions with what country they're in.

A bird in Maine is going there, and it's breeding, and then it goes to Haiti for the wintertime.

It's important to know that Maine and Haiti are connected.

The study provides a unique insight into how the birds live, and how they survive.

This is when this bird arrived at the breeding colony.

And at that point, it doesn't have to travel very much because it's courting, it doesn't have any chicks yet.

But then, as time goes on, the chicks hatch, you can see the distance flown per day increases 'cause the demands of his family are increasing.

But then the chicks fledge, and the amount of flight drops off precipitously, and now the bird is just taking care of itself, and perhaps saying, 'Whew!'

[ Chuckles ] 'That was a hard breeding season.'

Every organism is like a lightbulb.

It has a certain rate at which it uses energy, whether you're talking about an oak tree or a bacteria or a bird.

So, based upon the wattage that the animal has intrinsically is going to determine how much territory it's going to have to use.

This technology has actually allowed us to estimate or calculate an ecological footprint for an animal.

We know how many acres these birds need of shoreline.

This is an opportunity to get close to an animal that you haven't been able to get close to before, and learn something about it.

Birds, it's very hard to know where a bird goes.

And so a tracking device on the back of a bird can teach you so much that we haven't known before.

♪♪

And that wraps it up for this time.

For more on science, technology, and innovation, visit our website, check us out on Facebook and Instagram, and join the conversation on Twitter.

You can also subscribe to our YouTube channel.

Until next time, I'm Hari Sreenivasan.

Thanks for watching.

Funding for this program is made possible by...