SciTech Now Episode 8

Episode eight of SciTech Now brings you the latest breakthroughs in science, technology and innovation. We take a look at one town trying to crack the code of internet access, we meet a designer and engineer making high tech “kinetic” furniture, Dr. Robbert Dijkgraaf answers the question, “What is the future of the universe?” we learn how to read at lightning speed and see the science of cheese.

TRANSCRIPT

> COMING UP, CRACKING THE CODE OF INTERNET ACCESS

THE BENEFIT OF IS THE SIGNALS ARE MUCH LOWER FREQUENCY AND THEY TRAVEL THROUGH THE FREEZE

> FURNITURE TURNED HIGH TECH

ONCE YOU ADD SENSORS AND AN THEME INTO A DEVICE YOU CAN MAKE IT REACT TO WHATEVER YOU WANT.

WE LEARN HOW TO READ AT LIGHTNING SPEED.

THE SECRET OF OUR TECHNOLOGY I THAT YOUR EYES DON'T HAVE TO MOVE

AND LEARN ABOUT THE SCIENCE OF CHEESE.

ISAAC NEWTON TELLS US THA EVERY FORCE HAS AN EQUAL A OPPOSITE FORCE

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

HELLO WELCOME TO 'SCI-TECH NOW.'

BRING BRINGING YOU THE LATES TECHNOLOGIES IN SCIENCE AN INNOVATION MUCH OF MODERN LIFE REVOLVES AROUND THE INTERNET BUT WHIL HIGH-SPEED BROADBAND SERVICE I TAKEN ADVANTAGE BY MAN AMERICANS CLOSE TO 20 MILLION OR 6% OF THE POPULATION STILL LAC ACCESS AS A RESULT, SOME TOWNS WITHOU BROADBRAND ARE COMING UP WIT INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO GET AN STAY CONNECTED

TOWNS LIKE THURMOND ARE HAR TO REACH

THURMOND IS VERY RURAL.

YOU CANNOT BUY GAS IN MANY TOWN.

YOU CANNOT BUY A GALLON OF MIL IN THURMOND.

IT'S QUIET AND PEACEFUL TOWN

EVERYONE KNOWS EVERYONE BUT IN A MAJOR WAY, THEY ARE DISCONNECTED MUCH OF THE TOWN STILL USE DIALUP OR DRIVES TO A CERTAI SPOT FOR WI-FI ACCESS.

WITHOUT THIS, TOWNS WILL NO SURVIVE.

YOUR CHILDREN CAN'T DO THEIR HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS SO CHOOSING BETWEEN GETTING SPORTS DOWN.

IT AFFECTS HOW YOU SHOP, BANK, EVERYTHING IF IT'S NOT SOMETHING THAT I ACCESSIBLE TO YOUR COMMUNITY PEOPLE AREN'T GOING TO COME OR STAY IN YOUR COMMUNITY

LIKE MANY OTHER NEW YOR TOWNS, THURMOND IS TAKIN INITIATIVES TO MOVING IN A DIRECTION FEW HAVE GONE BEFORE THEY ARE ONE OF THE FIRS COMMUNITIES IN THE COUNTRY TRYING TO CREATE A RESIDENTIAL WHITE SPACE NETWORK.

IN THE ADIRONDACK AND ESPECIALLY IN THE PARK, WE FAC A COUPLE OF UNUSUAL CHALLENGES YOU DON'T FIND ELSEWHERE IN TH COUNTRY.

IT RESTRICTS US FROM BUILDING ON PEAKS OR RIDGE LINES SO WE CAN'T PUT A TOWER ON A MOUNTAIN.

WHEN YOU DO DO WIRELESS, THE EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES BEFORE THE WIDE SPACE TECHNOLOGIES WOUL NOT PASS THROUGH TREES AND LEAVES WHICH MEANS YOU COULD NOT DO WIRELESS NETWORKS SO TH BENEFIT OF THE WHITE SPACE IT' A MUCH LOWER FREQUENCY AND TRAVEL THROUGH THE TREES

Reporter: THE GOAL IS TRANSMIT HIGH SPEED INTERNET T RESIDENTS USING WHITE SPACE OR THE UNUSED PORTIONS OF THE ANALOG TV SPECTRUM AND IT' PERFECT FOR RURAL AREAS SINC THEY TEND TO HAVE MORE OPE CHANNELS THAN CITIES ON THIS DAY, THEY ARE STILL ON THE TESTING PHASE AN DETERMINING THE BEST LOCATIONS TO PUT RADIOS TO RELAY THE INTERNET SIGNALS ACROSS TH TOWN

IT'S A MATTER OF A RELA BOUNCING SIGNALS FROM ONE SPOT TO THE NEXT.

WHAT WE ARE DOING IS WE AR BORROWING OR RENTING A SPACE O THE FIBER FROM FRONTIER OR VERIZON AND WE WILL PLUG INT THAT AND THEN WE WILL BE EXTENDING THAT AND COVER A CERTAIN RADIUS OF HOUSES THA WILL GET THIS, AND THEN WITHIN THAT RADIUS, THEN WE FIN ANOTHER SPOT AND WE BOUNCE THE SIGNAL TO THE NEXT AREA.

Reporter: ONE THING THE ALREADY HAVE FIGURED OUT, WHER TO PLACE THE HEART OF TH NETWORK.

THIS IS THE CENTER OF THURMOND'S WHITE SPACE PROJECT WE ARE ON SOUTH JOHNSBERG ROAD AT THE HIGHEST POINT OF THE ROAD AND ALONG THIS ROAD IS THE FIBER WE INTEND TO TAP INTO.

TO THE RIGHT WE HAVE FRONTIE FIBER AND ON A POLE VERIZON AN ON THE SAME POLE SO WE HAVE BOTH CARRIER AND ROUTE DIVERSITY.

IT'S IN THE LEAVES OF THE TREE THE ANTENNA.

FROM HERE WE HOPE TO COVER THE ROAD GOING TO THE NORTH AN SOUTH AND WEST OUR GARNETT LAKE.

Reporter: THE FUNDS COVER THE COST OF TESTING AND CONSTRUCTING A RESIDENTIAL NETWORK.

THERE WE GO

Reporter: OTHER WHITE SPACE EXPERIMENTS IN VIRGINIA AN CALIFORNIA, FOR EXAMPLE, WER CONDUCTED USING OLDER MODELS

WHAS BEEN TESTED IN A FEW AREAS OF THE COUNTRY THE S.E.C. IS WORKING ON APPROVING IT FOR SEVERAL YEARS AND I BELIEVE AT THE END OF 2011 IN DECEMBER THEY FINALLY APPROVED IT.

THEY WERE USING FIRST GENERATION EQUIPMENT FROM A DIFFERENT VENDOR SO WE ARE NOW ON SECOND GENERATION EQUIPMENT WHICH HAS MUCH HIGHER CAPACITY

WE HAVE HAD BUSINESSES CLOS DOWN BECAUSE THEY DON'T HAVE INTERNET, THEY CAN'T PROCESS CREDIT CARDS, THEY CAN'T GET ONLINE THEY HAVE ACTUALLY HAD PEOPL STOP THEIR SALE TO BUY A HOM HERE WHEN THEY FOUND OUT THERE WAS NO INTERNET.

WE ARE HOPING THAT ONCE WE GET THURMOND UP AND RUNNING AN EVERYBODY ELSE SEES WHAT WE WERE ABLE TO DO, WE FEEL CERTAIN THAT IT WILL JUST TAKE OF EVERYWHERE

Reporter: IF TESTIN CONTINUES ACCORDING TO PLAN, THEY HOPE TO BEGIN THE BUILDIN OF THE ACTUAL NETWORK DURING THE SUMMER, HAVING EVERYTHING UP AND RUNNING FOR RESIDENTS BY EARLY AUTUMN

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT WHITE SPACE NETWORKS VISIT OUR WEBSITE.

♪♪ ♪♪ BE THE CROSS-SECTION OF PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING AN ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEY CAN GIVE YOU US A SENSE O WONDER AND AMAZEMENT JESSICA BANKS WELCOME TO OUR PROGRAM.

THANK YOU

WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT GETTIN YOUNG WOMEN INTERESTED IN MATH AND SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING.

WHAT INSPIRED YOU?

I HAD ALWAYS WANTED TO BE A ASTRONAUT EVER SINCE I WAS, YO KNOW, A VERY YOUNG GIRL.

I DID ASTRO PHYSICS IN UNDERGRAD AND WORKED FOR GODDARD AND THOUGHT I'M GOING IN THE MILITARY AND FLY THE SCHULTZ AND THEN I'M GOING TO GO INTO SPACE.

THEN THINGS KIND OF TOOK A DIFFERENT TURN AND I REALIZE THAT I WASN'T REALLY CUT OUT T GO INTO THE MILITARY, AND I WA COMPLETELY ILL-PREPARED FO TERRESTRIAL LIFE WHEN IT SEEME I'M GOING TO BE HERE ON EARTH.

THEN I ACTUALLY DID A BUNCH OF THINGS AND WENT INTO ENTERTAINMENT FOR A WHILE AN STILL HAD THIS DRIVE TO GO INT SPACE.

AND I SAW A MOVIE CALLED 'FAST CHEAP AND OUT OF CONTROL.'

IT'S A DOCUMENTARY ABOUT A LIO TAMER WHO CARVES TREES INT SHAPES AND NAKED MOLD WRAP SPECIALISTEN A ROBOTIST.

I THOUGHT ROBOTICS, THAT I INTERESTING.

THAT IS LIKE PHYSICS AND SCULPTURE.

I DID A LOT OF ART WHY NOT BE A ROBOTIST AND BE A MISSION SPECIALIST INSTEAD O NECESSARILY FLY THE SHUTTLE, AND SO THAT IS REALLY WHAT BROUGHT ME BACK INTO ROBOTICS.

HOW DO WE GET FROM ROBOTIST TO DESIGNING THIS FURNITUR WHICH SOME OF THIS IS LIKE ROBOTICS IN ITSELF YOU HAVE A CHANDELIER THAT EXPANDS AND EXTRACTS DEPENDING ON VOLUME IN THE ROOM.

HOW DOES THAT WORK

BASICALLY, WHEN YOU INVOLVE SENSORS, YOU CAN MAKE IT REACT TO ANYTHING YOU WANT IT CAN BE LIGHT, AS YOU SAID SOUND.

IT COULD ALSO BE PREDICTIVE.

MAYBE IT'S CONNECTED TO THE REST OF THE DEVICES IN YOUR LIFE AN KNOWS YOUR SCHEDULE.

I CAN ALSO MAKE SUGGESTION ABOUT AESTHETIC DECISIONS THAT YOU MIGHT NOT HAVE CONSIDERED.

SAY YOU MIGHT FIND THIS REALLY BEAUTIFUL FOR THIS ONE OCCASION.

LET ME SHOW YOU WHAT THAT WOUL LOOK LIKE.

THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT WAYS OF HAVING THE MECHANICA AND SENSOR BASE OBJECTS CA EFFECT AND ENHANCE YOUR LIFE

YOU DESIGNED A COFFEE TABLE IS LIKE A RUBIK CUBE THAT IS FLOATING HOW DOES THE FLOATING WORK

THAT IS WHAT WE CALL OU FLOAT TABLE.

IT WORKS BASICALLY BY -- THERE ARE MAGNETS IMBEDDED IN THES WOODEN CUBES THE MAGNETS THAT ARE EMBEDDED IN THE EIGHT FACES OF THE CUB PROPEL AND THE WHOLE THING I HELD BY THESE STEEL CABLES

YOU CAN REQUEST ONE PART OF IT DOWN.

YOU COULD STILL USE IT TO PUT COFFEE BOOK ON TOP OF IT AND I WORKS JUST FINE?

ABSOLUTELY.

YOU PRESS ON ONE OF THE SINGLE CUBES IT'S BOUNCY AND MUSHY AN THE WHOLE THING CAN BE THAT BU WHEN YOU DISTRIBUTE THE MASS O A COFFEE TABLE BOOK OR A TRAY OF DRINKS, IT'S QUITE STABLE AN VERY FUNCTIONAL.

THERE'S ANOTHER ONE CALLE THE BRAG TABLE NOW, HOW DID YOU GET THIS IDEA

SO I WANTED TO MAKE SOMETHING THAT LOOKED LIKE A BIG DIAMOND MADE OF CONCRETE BALANCING O ITS POINT.

I DIDN'T KNOW HOW TO WORK WITH CONCRETE AND SO I ENDED UP USING SOMETHING CALLED CORIAN.

IT IS BALANCED

THIS IS A RELATIVELY SMAL SCALE.

YOU'RE ABLE TO MAKE THES THINGS WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN IN THE FUTURE WHEN, SAY, 3D PRINTIN BECOMES MORE COMMON?

I THINK THIS WHOLE TOPIC OF 3D PRINTING IS FASCINATING IT'S IN NEW TOOL I THINK PEOPLE ARE GETTING USE TO WHAT IT MEANS TO BE ABLE TO USE THIS AND I THINK IT' WONDERFUL PEOPLE ARE BRINGIN NEW NEW WAYS TO BRING IN REVENUE FOR BRING IN THESE NEW TOOLS I THINK A LOT OF THIS STUFF IF I MIGHT SAY IS LIKE DIGITAL POOP WE ARE PUTTING OUT STUFF THA ARE KIND OF TRINKETS THAT AREN'T THAT USEFUL.

AS A HOME TOOL USE, I'M ALWAYS HAPPY WHEN PEOPLE ARE ENABLED TO USE NEW TOOLS.

THERE IS KIND OF A CONUNDRUM YOU THINK I CAN MAKE ANYTHING I HAVE A 3D PRINTER BUT YOU DON'T HAV CREATIVITY AND SKILLS DON'T COME IN THAT BOX, RIGHT SO IT WILL BE SOME TIME IN COMING WHEN YOU REALLY I THINK SEE THE WONDERS OF THIS.

YOU STILL HAVE TO WORK WITH YOUR HANDS A LOT AND DOING EVERYTHING FROM DRILLING TO UP AND SCULPT TO MAKE THESE SHOTS

I BUILD THE THINGS AND TOUC THEM AND I'M AN INVENTOR A HEART.

THE PERCENTAGE I GET TO DO THA A DAY IS MINIMIZED BUT I'M MOVING AS FAST AS MY LITTLE LEGS CAN CARRY ME SO I'M IN THE SHO MORE OFTEN

THE NAME OF THE COMPANY I CALLED ROCK, PAPER, ROBOT.

THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR HAVIN ME ♪♪

HELLO, I'M DIRECTOR AND A PROFESSOR AT THE INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY IN PRINCETON.

WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF TH UNIVERSE WE KNOW THE UNIVERSE WAS CREATED IN A BIG BANG, BUT HOW DOES IT END?

WE ALSO KNOW THAT THE UNIVERSE HAS BEEN EXPANDING ONE OF THE REMARKABL DISCOVERIES IN THE LAST DECADE IS THAT THE RATE OF EXPANSION IS INCREASING WE HE CALL THIS DARK ENERGY.

IT'S A PROPERTY OF EMPTY SPACE THAT ONCE PULL ITSELF APART.

CLEARLY THIS IS REINFORCIN PHENOMENON BECAUSE YOU CREAT MORE EMPTY SPACE AND MORE DARK ENERGY AND PUSHES HARDER AND HARDER AT THIS MOMENT 75% OF ALL TH ENERGY OF THE UNIVERSE CONSIST OF THIS DARK ENERGY AND ONLY B MORE AND MORE.

THE CONSEQUENCES ARE RATHE DRAMATIC ALL OF THE GALAXIES WILL BEGIN TO DISAPPEAR AND WE ARE LEFT JUST WITH OURSELVES IN A COLD, DARK, EMPTY UNIVERSE SO IS THERE ANY LIGHT AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL?

WELL, THIS IS SPECULATIVE THEORY THAT AT SOME POINT THE UNIVERS COULD DECIDE TO TRANSITION INT A NEW UNIVERSE A SO-CALLED BABY UNIVERSE WITH PERHAPS COMPLETELY DIFFERENT LAWS OF NATURE AND THEN IT WIL START ALL OVER AGAIN ♪♪

> IMAGINE IF YOU COULD READ AN ENTIRE NOVEL IN AN HOUR OR A NEWS ARTICLE IN JUST A MINUTE.

THERE'S A TECHNOLOGY OUT O BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, DOING JUST THAT.

WHAT IS THIS

SPRITZ IS A TECHNOLOGY THAT HELPS YOU READ MATERIAL FASTER AND ALSO IN SMALL SURVEYS.

YOU'RE READING ON THE GO YOU'RE ON THE SUBWAY IT'S A WAY TO CONSUM INFORMATION.

HOW DO YOU GET SOMEONE TO READ FASTER WITHOUT SORT O TEACHING THEM TO SPEED READ?

THE SECRET OF OUR TECHNOLOG IS YOUR EYE DOESN'T HAVE T MOVE A LOT OF TIMES THAT READING IS MOVING YOUR EYE FROM WORD-TO-WORD ACROSS THE LINE AND WHEN YOUR BRAIN IS MOVING YOUR EYE, THAT IS WHAT IT'S DOING IT'S NOT COMPREHENDING WHA YOU'RE READING OR ANYTHING IF WE TAKE THAT MOVEMENT AWA AND POSITION A WORD WHERE YO CAN RECOGNIZE EACH WORD WITHOU MOVING YOUR EYE, THEN YOU CA READ FAST.

BUT WE HAVE GROWN UP LEARNING HOW TO READ LEFT-TO-RIGHT OR I SOME CULTURES RIGHT-TO-LEFT, RIGHT?

HOW MUCH TIME ARE WE REALL TALKING ABOUT WASTING?

HOW MUCH IS THAT EFFICIENCY OR INEFFICIENCY PRESENT IN HOW WE READ TODAY

WELL, IT'S ABOUT 80% OF THE TIME YOU SPEND MOVING YOUR EYE SO THE IDEA IS TO GET YOU TO FOCUS ON ONE PLACE, RELAX, AND JUST LET THE WORDS STREAM INTO YOUR BRAIN AND IT'S AMAZING THAT SOME PEOPLE CAN READ FOUR TO FIVE TIMES FASTER.

LET'S SEE HOW IT WORKS.

I HAVE FOR A BASIC DEMO, AN E-MAIL APPLICATION THAT WE DEVELOPED FOR THE SAMSUNG GALAXY PHONE.

RIMT.

IT LOOKS LIKE NORMAL E-MAIL EXCEPT WHEN I CLICK O IT, IT IS GOING TO SHOW ME I ITS ENTIRETY AND I CAN RECEIPT AS MUCH AS OF IT AS I WANT IF I WANT TO GO TO ANOTHER E-MAIL I JUST TAP THE NEXT ONE THIS IS 300 WORDS A MINUTE WHICH IS ONLY SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE INTRODUCTORY SPEED WE START YO AT YOU CAN FIND YOU CAN REA E-MAILS AT LIKE 500 WORDS MINUTE

OKAY.

SO BESIDES THE PHONE, ARE THER OTHER APPLICATIONS FOR IT?

WHEN WE DEVELOP THIS APP FO THE PHONE, WE WERE ACTUALL DEVELOPING THE E-MAIL APP FO THE WATCH.

THIS IS THE SAMSUNG SMARTWATCH THE GEAR TWO

RIGHT

WE DEVELOPED THE SAME E-MAI APP FOR THE WATCH AND HERE YOU CAN SEE I HAVE ONE NEW E-MAIL ON MY WATCH NORMALLY, WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IS AS SOON AS IT ARRIVES, IT WOUL SHAKE MY WRIST I WOULD LOOK DOWN AT IT AND SA IS THAT AN E-MAIL I WANT T READ IF SO, I WOULD JUST TAP IT AND HERE IS THE PLANE.

SAME DISPLAY, JUST SCALED TO THE WATCH.

THAT'S IT BASICALLY, NOW JUST ONE WORD THAT IS MOVING ON THE WATC INSTEAD OF ME HAVING TO TRY TO SCROLL UP OR DOWN?

EXACTLY E-MAIL AND IF YOU WANT TO REPLY, HIT REPLY.

IT PULLS UP THAT E-MAIL ON M PHONE.

GREAT AND THIS WORKS ON iPADs OR COMPUTERS AS WELL?

SURE.

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF READING ON A LARGER SCREEN.

YOU CAN SLIDE THE SPEED

THAT'S RIGHT.

YOU CAN INCREASE YOUR SPEED AN READ IT REALLY FAST.

I'M TRYING TO FIGURE OUT TH WAYS THAT I'VE LEARNED HOW T READ HAVE TAUGHT M COMPREHENSION BY GOING BACK AN FORTH, BY JUMPING SAYING I DIDN'T REALLY GET THIS PARAGRAPH, MAYBE I NEED TO RE-READ IT SEEMS THAT WOULD BE HARDER THA GETTING ONE WORD AT A TIME

IT WOULD BE BUT LET ME SHOW YOU.

IN THE CASE OF THIS PARTICULAR APP THAT WE MADE, YOU HAVE THE ABILITY TO GO BACK A SENTENCE OR BACK A PARAGRAPH SO IF YOU NEED TO RE-READ IT YOU CAN JUST BACK UP

YOU'RE REALLY TALKING ABOUT CHANGING A BEHAVIOR THAT PEOPL HAVE ASSOCIATED WITH NAVIGATIN LIFE WHEN YOU'RE A CHILD, YOU LEARN HOW TO READ.

YOU'RE READING LEFT-TO-RIGHT YOU'RE REINFORCED FOR THAT BEHAVIOR OVER TIME

RIGHT

PEOPLE SAY, YOU'RE A GREA READER, YOU HAVE GREAT COMPREHENSION.

AND HERE IS A TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION THAT KIND OF UP-END THAT ENTIRE MODEL.

YES, IT'S VERY DISRUPTIVE I THAT WAY BUT, YOU KNOW, WE HAVE YOUNG PEOPLE READING THIS WAY ALL TH WAY UP TO MY 87-YEAR-OLD AUNT.

SO IT'S APPLICABLE ACROSS AL GENERATIONS.

WHAT ABOUT THE ABILITY TO RETAIN INFORMATION LONG TERM IS THERE A RISK THAT READING I THIS WAY I MIGHT NOT REMEMBE WHAT IT IS AS WELL AS IF I HAD READ IT ON PAGES AND I'M ALMOS MAKING VISUAL MAPS AND VISUA GUIDELINES

THERE ARE WAYS TO IMPROVE COMPREHENSION READIN CONVENTIONALLY AS WELL THE SAME TECHNIQUES YOU US READING THAT WAY YOU'LL FIND YOU'LL DO THEM THIS WAY ALSO WE HAVE TESTED A LOT OF PEOPLE OVER A THOUSAND PEOPLE AND W FIND THAT THE COMPREHENSION IS COMPARABLE

WHERE DO YOU SEE SPRITZ BEING USED THE MOST?

NOW WE ARE FOCUSED ON MOBIL BECAUSE SO MUCH DIGITAL CONTEN IS GOING MOBILE AND WHERE WE WANT TO BE WHERE PEOPLE ARE CHANGING THEI BEHAVIOR ANY WAY

WHAT IS TO KEEP YOU IN TH LEAD HERE?

WELL, IT'S NOT AS SIMPLE AS IT LOOKS THERE IS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND WE THINK WE ARE THE FIRS ONES TO DO IT.

LUCKILY HERE IN THE U.S. WE CA PROTECT THAT

ARE SOME OF THE FUNDAMENTAL OF SPEED READING BEHIND THIS I MEAN, THIS IDEA SORT O CHUNKING PIECES OF TEXT?

NO.

ACTUALLY, THERE'S NOTHING ABOU SPEED READING IN THIS.

SO SPEED READING IS TO WIDEN YOUR PERIPHERAL VISION SO THAT YOU CAN ABSORB AN ENTIRE LINE OF TEXT

THIS IS THE OPPOSITE REALLY

THIS IS THE OPPOSITE, THAT' RIGHT.

THIS IS THE OPPOSITE OF SPEED READING BUT HELPING YOU READ FASTER

THAT'S RIGHT.

AND WITHOUT TRAINING SO, YOU KNOW, WE ARE NOT TRYIN TO,, YOU KNOW, QUADRUPLE EVERYBODY'S READING SPEED.

YOU KNOW, WE THINK THAT-- IN FACT, THE ONLY WAY TO CONSUM INFORMATION ON A SMALL SCREEN IS TO READ IT A WORD AT A TIME.

AND SO, YOU KNOW, WE ARE FOCUSED ON THOSE CASES WHERE PUTTING INFORMATION INTO A SMALL SPACE IS REALLY THE WAY TO DO IT BUT IF PEOPLE LIKE TO SPEED READ OR LIKE TO READ MULTIPLE WORDS AT A TIME, YOU KNOW, STAY WITH THAT TECHNIQUE

FRANK WALDMAN FROM SPRITZ THANKS SO MUCH

THANK YOU ♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪

> HAVE YOU EVER THOUGHT ABOU WHY SOME CHEESES CRUMBLE O STRING CHEESE GETS ITS FORM?

THERE IS A SCIENCE TO IT AND I THIS NEXT SEGMENT WE TAKE A LOOK AT THE PHYSICS OF CHEESE PHYSICS PLAYS A LOT OF ROLE IN CHEESE MAKING.

MOST OF IT COMES AFTER THE CHEESE IS MADE AFTER YOU SEPARATED IT FROM TH WAY THEN YOU SEPARATE CHEESE WE KNOW ISAAC NEWTON WHO CAN FIGURE OUT WHAT TO DO FOR US WHAT I BROUGHT HERE TODAY WAS BROUGHT A COUPLE OF LITTLE DEMONSTRATIONS OF CHEESE THIS IS A HOME CHEESE MOLD RIGHT?

AND THE WAY YOU PRESS CHEESE I YOU TAKE THE MOLD AND YOU PU THE CHEESE IN THERE AND I DON' HAVE ANY IN THERE BUT YOU PU THE CHEESE IN THERE AND SET IT DOWN AND LID ON TOP AND PRESS IT DOWN ISAAC NEWTON TELLS US THAT EVERY FORCE HAS AN EQUAL AN OPPOSITE FORCE, RIGHT IF I SET THIS DOWN ON HERE AND THE CHEESE KEEPS IT FROM FALLING OR FROM FALLING AILMENT WAY DOWN THAT MEANS THE WEIGHT OF THI WATER IS PRESSING DOWN ON TH CHEESE THE CHEESE IS PRESSING UP ON THE WATER AND WE ARE GOING TO ACTUALLY PRESS ALL OF THE ACCESS WAY OUT OF THE CHEESE.

THIS IS PRETTY HANDY IF I SET THIS ON HERE, I GET ABOUT EIGHT POUNDS OF FORC PUSHING DOWN ON THE CHEESE AND THAT WORKS OUT PRETTY WELL THE PROBLEM COMES IN IF I HAVE A BIGGER WHEEL OF CHEESE RIGHT?

AND IF I PUT EIGHT POUNDS OF CHEESE OR WEIGHT ON THAT SAM WHEEL OF CHEESE IT'S NOT GOING TO PRESS AS WELL SO WHAT WE HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT IS THE PRESSURE THAT WE AR PRESSING DOWN AT SO EIGHT POUNDS DISTRIBUTED OVER THIS LARGER AREA IS GOING TO GIVE US A LESS PRESSURE PE SQUARE INCH, WHICH MEANS IT' NOT GOING TO PRESS QUITE A WELL BIG INDUSTRIAL CHEES MANUFACTURERS, THEY ACTUALLY HAVE AIR PRESSURE OR WATER PRESSURE THAT WILL PUSH ON SOMETHING TO PRESS THE CHEES DOWN AND THEY CAN DIAL IN TH PRESSURE FOR BIG WHEELS OR SMALL WHEELS OR WHATEVER THEY HAVE OKAY BUT FOR HOME CHEESE MAKING O PEOPLE WHO JUST LIKE TO MAKE MAYBE ARTISAN SMALL PIECES O CHEESE OR SMALL WHEELS O CHEESE, YOU HAVE TO DO SOMETHING ELSE NOW THIS IS A CHEESE PRESS THA WAS MADE FOR HOME.

AND THIS IS A PRETTY HANDY THING BECAUSE I CAN SET THIS DOWN ON HERE AND THIS IS JUST TWO LITTLE PLATES IF YOU PUSH DOWN ON ONE, I PUSHES DOWN ON THE SPRINGS REMEMBER, NEWTON'S THIRD LAW EQUAL AND OPPOSITE PRESS ON HERE AND PRESSES ON THE SPRING TH SPRING PRESSES DOWN ON THIS IF I PUT THIS IN HERE IT WILL PRESS DOWN ON THE CHEPS.

THE TIGHTER I PUSH THIS DOWN THE MORE IT PRESSES DOWN ON TH CHEESE RIGHT?

THE PROBLEM IS HOW DO I FIGURE OUT EXACTLY HOW MUCH I'M PRESSING DOWN ON THE CHEESE?

THIS IS WHERE WE USE MOR PHYSICS.

SOMETHING CALLED HOOK'S LAW AN A LAW THAT DESCRIBES HOW A SPRING WILL PRESS WHEN YOU COMPRESS IT.

OKAY IF I TAKE THIS GALLON OF WATER WHICH IS ABOUT EIGHT POUNDS AN I SET IT ON HERE WITHOUT DROPPING IT.

YOU'LL NOTICE THAT IT COMPRESSES THE SPRING, RIGHT?

THAT SAME COMPRESSION WEIGHT MEANS IT'S DELIVERED TO TH BOTTOM PLATE AND IT'S GOING TO PUSH DOWN BY EIGHT POUNDS, RIGHT?

BUT, OF COURSE, I MIGHT WANT T PRESS BY MORE THAN EIGHT POUNDS.

MAYBE 16 OR 42 POUNDS.

WHAT AM I GOING TO DO, RIGHT YOU NOTICE WHEN I PUSH DOWN BY EIGHT POUNDS THE SPRIN COMPRESSES THIS MUCH AN EIGH POUNDS OF FORCE DELIVERED TO THIS BOTTOM PLATE.

IF I WANT TO GO 16 POUNDS ALL NEED TO DO IS COMPRESS THE SPRING TWICE AS MUCH THAT IS HOOK'S LAW OKAY NOW I HAVE A VARIABLE PRESS.

SO I CAN PUSH THIS DOWN AFTER CALIBRATED IT.

I CAN SPIN THESE LITTLE GUYS DOWN LIKE THAT.

SPIN THIS ONE DOWN LIKE THIS AND THEN WHEN I LET IT GO, NEWTON'S THIRD LAW STILL HOLDS THE SPRINGS ARE PRESSING DOW WITH NOW TWICE THE WEIGHT THAT WE HAD IT PRESSED DOWN BEFORE.

SO NOW IT'S PUSHING 16 POUND DOWN ON THIS AND IF I WANT T PUSH IT AT 32 POUNDS, I CAN PUSH IT WAY DOWN!

AND GET AS MUCH PRESSURE AS WANT ♪♪

THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS TIME FOR MORE ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOG AND INOVATION VISIT OU WEBSITE.

CHECK US OUT ALSO ON FACEBOO AND JOIN THE CONVERSATION ON TWITTER.

UNTIL NEXT TIME, THANKS FO WATCHING I'M HARI SREENIVASAN

FUNDING WAS MADE POSSIBLE B CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪