SciTech Now Episode 7

Episode Seven of SciTech Now brings you the latest breakthroughs in science, technology and innovation. We take a look at a hands-on approach to science and math, learn how devices have gone digital, meet the creators of a startup revolutionizing the future of coding, look at how trash is being turned to gas in space, and meet a man taking Legos to a new level.

TRANSCRIPT

> COMING UP, A A HANDS-ONn APPROACH TO SCIENCE AND MATH.n

THE PEOPLE WHO UNDERSTAND ARE ALWAYS THE PEOPLE DOING THEU TALKING.

SO IF WE WANT STUDENTS TO UNDERSTAND, WE NEED THEM TO START TALKING.

> DEVICE HAS GONE DIGITAL.

THERE IS BLUETOOTH IN THIS3 TOOTHBRUSH.n BUT THIS IS CONNECTED TO M PHONE.

> WE HAVE BEEN HEARING MOREU AND MORE ABOUT SPACE MISSIONS, POSSIBLY TO MARS ONE DAY.n IT WILL BE AN INTERESTING NASA PROGRAM.

> AND TAKING LEGOS TO NEWw LEVELS.n

> WORKING WITH CHILDREN, SEEING THEM INTERACT WITH THEU TOY AND CREATING THINGS THAT US3 ADULTS MAY HAVE NOT EVEN THOUGHT OF.n

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

FUNDING IS MADE POSSIBLE BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

HELLO.n WELCOME TO SCITECH NOW, A WEEKLY PROGRAM BRINGING THE LATESTD BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE,L TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION.

AS SCHOOLS FOCUS MORE ON STEM] INSTRUCTION, EDUCATORS TRY TO HELP STUDENTS MAKE SENSE OFf COMPLEX SCIENCE AND MATH TOPICS.

ANDREA VAZQUEZ HAS THE STORY.n

> AS A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT,L THEY ENJOY THE SUBJECT BUT NOT THE WAY IT WAS TAUGHT.

I WAS FRUSTRATED.

I DIDN'T WANT TO WATCH M TEACHER DO PHYSICS.n CAN WE DO PHYSICS, PLEASE?

NOW A TEACHER, HE FOUND THEU ANTIDOTE IN MODELING INSTRUCTION AND APPROACHED TEACHING THAT RELIES LESS ON LECTURES ANDD TEXTBOOKS AND MORE ON STUDENTS'S HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE.

INSTEAD OF HAVING TO QUIETL DO WORK BY THEMSELVES, THEY AREU CONVERSING, THEY ARE DEDUCING, PROBLEM-SOLVING, SHARING.n

IT MOVES UP TO BE LEARNERS3 TOGETHER RATHER THAN JUST KIND OF PASSIVE RECEIVERS OFf KNOWLEDGE.

THE UNITED STATES RANKS 25t& IN MATHEMATICS AND 17th IN SCIENCE AMONG INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS.

IT IS UNACCEPTABLE.n AMONG THE GROWING NUMBER OFf EDUCATORS WHO THINKS MODELINGw INSTRUCTION CAN HELP CHANGEU THAT.n HE AND TEACHERS FROM AROUND THEU COUNTRY AND ACROSS THE WORLD GAVE US THREE WEEKS THIS SUMMER' TO ATTEND ONE OF THE WORKSHOPS THAT THE AMERICAN MODELING TEACHERS ASSOCIATION PUT ON IN 20 STATES AND THREE COUNTRIES.

ABOUT 10% OF THE PHYSICS3 TEACHERS IN THE COUNTRY HAVE GONE THROUGH A MODELINGw WORKSHOP.n AND A FRACTION OF THE CHEMISTR TEACHERS, THERE ARE PROBABLY WELL OVER 1700 TEACHERS THAT ARE MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN MODELING TEACHERS ASSOCIATION.n AND ITS MEMBERSHIP CURVE IS3 GOING UP STEEPLY.n

FROM 2010 TO 2020, THE U.S.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROJECTS DOUBLE DIGIT INCREASES IN THEU NUMBER OF STEM JOBS.

BUT IT REPORTS THAT ONLY 16% OFf HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS AREU PROFICIENT IN MATH AND INTERESTED IN A STEM CAREER.

SEEING THE GROWING NEED, SCIENCE EDUCATORS DEVELOPED MODELING INSTRUCTION, AND THE AMERICANn MODELING TEACHERS ASSOCIATIONn WAS FORMED TO TRAIN TEACHERS TO BRING IT INTO THEIR CLASSROOM.

THE METHOD AIMS TO HELP STUDENTS ESSENTIALLY DO SCIENCE RATHER' THAN MEMORIZE FACTS.

WE COLLECT EVIDENCE.n WE ANALYZE IT.

WE SEE PATTERNS IN IT.

CAN WE USE THESE PATTERNS TO COME UP WITH SOME KIND OF MODEL.

THEN WE CAN USE IT TO PREDICTD OTHER SITUATIONS.n

WE ARE TRYING TO RECREATE THAT EXPERIENCE ALL THE TIME INn WHAT WE TO IN THE CLASSROOM SO THAT THE KIDS SEE SCIENCE NOT AS A BODY OF FACTS AND FIGURES BUTD AS A HUMAN INTELLECTUAL ENDEAVOR THAT IS A CREATIVE PROCESS OFf BUILDING MODELS AND THINKING ABOUT HOW DOES THE WORLD WORK; AND HOW DO WE BEST REPRESENT AND COMMUNICATE HOW THE WORLD WORKS.

AND OUR SCIENCE EDUCATION MISSES OUT ON THAT.

WITH THIS METHOD, TEACHERS3 PUSH STUDENTS TO DEVELOP A MODEL AND ANSWER QUESTIONS.n STUDENTS THEN EXPERIMENT WIT& THEIR MODELS AND ERROR THE DATA.

THE FACT THAT THEY COULD USEU DIAGRAMS OR MAYBE A TPWRAF TO DO SOMETHING INSTEAD OF EQUATIONS.n THAT HELPS A LOT OF THE KIDS WITH THE VARYING MATH ABILITIES.

A QUESTION MIGHT SAY YOU CAN USE EQUATIONS OR THE GRAPH.n IT REACHES DIFFERENT LEARNINGw STYLES THAT WAY.

AFTER MAKING SENSE OF THEIR DISCOVERIES, THE BUDDING SCIENTISTS PRESENT AND DISCUSS THE RESULTS WITH THEIR CLASSMATES.n MODELING INSTRUCTION FILMS THE TRADITIONAL TEACHER/STUDENTD DYNAMIC.

AND THAT CAN TAKE SOME GETTING USED TO FOR EVERYONE.n

WE TEACHERS GET SO CAUGHT U IN WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THEU STUDENT UNDERSTAND EVERYTHING.

SO WE TELL THEM OVER AND OVER' AGAIN.

BUT REALLY THE PEOPLE WHO UNDERSTAND ARE THE PEOPLE DOINGw THE TALKING.

SO IF WE WANT STUDENTS TO UNDERSTAND, WE NEED TO ASK THEM] TO START DOING THE TALKING.n IT IS NO LONGER MEMORIZING A BODY OF FACTS.

CAN'T WE JUST HAVE SOMETHINGw TO MEMORIZE.

CAN'T WE HAVE A WORKSHEET?

NO.n THAT'S NOT HOW IT WORKS.

IT WAS A LEARNING CURVE.

THEY REALLY GOT INTO IT A LITTLE BIT MORE.n

FROM OREGON TO RHODE ISLAND,L THERE IS A GROWING NUMBER OF STATES ADOPTING THE NEWw STANDARD, A NEW SET OF BENCHMARKS THAT REFORM SCIENCE EDUCATION.

AND THOSE LEADING THE WAY IN MODELLING INSTRUCTION SAY THEU APPROACH FITS IN WITH A NEWw FOCUS ON TEACHING STUDENTS TO THINK LIKE SCIENTISTS.

WHEN STUDENTS FEEL AS THOUG& THEY ARE GOING THROUGH THE SAMEU EXPERIMENTS AND THEY ARE REACHING CONCLUSIONS THAT THESEU GREAT SCIENTISTS, THAT'S THE MOST APPROXIMATE EMPOWERING PART OF MODELING.

THEY FEEL AS THOUGH THEY ARE COMING UP WITH THESE MODELS ANDD MAKING ACHIEVEMENTS ANDD DISCOVERIES FOR THEMSELVES.n

AS MODELLING INSTRUCTIONn INFILTRATES MORE CLASSROOMS, THEY ARE RAISING AWARENESS INn STEM AND CREATE A MORE COMPETITIVE WORKFORCE FOR THEU FUTURE.n

WE ARE TRYING TO ENGAGE STUDENTS IN THE 21st CENTURY SCIENCE THAT REALLY INVOLVEU KNOWING ENOUGH FOUNDATION OF SCIENCE AND ENOUGH ABILITY TO CONTINUE TO LEARN SCIENCE.

HAVING STUDENTS LEAVE HIG& SCHOOL VALUING AND APPRECIATINGw SCIENCE IS GOING TO BE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO HOW OPEN-MINDED THEY WILL BE TO BECOME MOREU EDUCATED ABOUT POLICY DECISIONS3 OR IN JOBS.n JUST OPEN MINDED AND NOT FEARFUL OF THE SCIENCE THAT IS INTEGRATED WITH EVERY, YOU KNOW, PROFESSION WE HAVE NOWADAYS.

FOR MORE ON MODELS METHODS, CHECK OUT THE LINKS ON OUR WEBSITE, INCLUDING A LINK TO A ROUNDTABLE CONVERSATION ABOUTD THE TOPIC AS PART OF AMERICANn GRADUATE DAY.n PUBLIC MEDIA INITIATIVE ON FINDING SOLUTIONS TO THE HIG& SCHOOL DROPOUT CRISIS.

> IT SEEMS NOTHING IS3 OFF-LIMITS WHEN IT COMES TO TRANSFORMING EVERY HOUSEHOLD ITEMS.

WE ARE HERE TO WALK THROUGH THEU EVOLUTION OF HOUSEHOLD DEVICES IN THE DIGITAL AGE.n SO I SEE YOU HAVE A LIGHT BULB.n WHAT HAPPENED TO THE LIGHT BULB.

IT ACTUALLY CONNECTS TO OUR PHONES.n SOMETIMES GETTING UP TO HIT THEU LIGHT SWITCH IS JUST TOO HARD.

SO THIS IS A LIKE THE MODERN CLAPPER IDEA.n YOU USE YOUR SMARTPHONE TO TURNn ON THE LIGHTS.

THERE IS A LOT OF POTENTIAL WITH THIS IDEA.

THE IDEA IS THAT ALL OF THESEU CONNECTED DEVICES IN OUR HOMES,L WHETHER IT'S THE COFFEE POT, THE GARAGE DOOR, WHETHER IT'S THEU LIGHTBULB ALL SORT OF HAVE ANn AWARENESS ABOUT IT.n IF IT'S THE MORNING AND YOUU START TO START USING YOUR' PHONES, AUTOMATICALLY EVERYTHING COULD TURN ON.

OR IF YOU SAY GOOD NIGHT AND YOU START TO SET YOUR ALARM, EVERYTHING SHUTS DOWN.

SO THAT'S THE IDEA.n THIS PROMISE OF THE SMART HOME.n RIGHT NOW, THOUGH, THINGS AREU NOT WORKING ALL THAT WELLL TOGETHER.n SOME OF THESE INDEPENDENTD PRODUCTS WORK BETTER ON THEIR' OWN.

MAYBE I WOULD WANT THE LIGHTD BULB TO TURN ON OR OFF IF I'M] AWAY.n I WANT TO KEEP THE BURGLARS3 AWAY, KEEP THEM GUESSING.n

EXACTLY.n THE THERMOSTAT.n YOU FORGOT DO TURN OFF THE AIR-CONDITIONING.n OR YOU KNOW YOU'RE GOING TO BE HOME IN 20 MINUTES AND YOU WANTD TO WARM UP THE HOUSE.n IT'S A COLD DAY.

WHY IS THE TOOTHBRUSH HERE?

I KNOW IT'S ELECTRONICS.

WHAT'S SO --

YOU ALWAYS WANT A BLUETOOTH IN YOUR TOOTHBRUSH, RIGHT?

IT SEEMS SO NATURAL.

THERE'S SO MANY PUNS.n IT DOESN'T MAKE YOUR TEETH BLUE.

YOU THIS IS CONNECTED TO M PHONE.

RIGHT.n

IT IS THE EVOLUTION OF THOSEU TIMERS THEY HAVE IN SOME OFf THESE ELECTRONIC TOOTHBRUSHES.

AS SOON AS I START BRUSHING THIS TIMER STARTS.n

OKAY.

SO IT IS TELLING ME I'M SPENDING ENOUGH TIME ON THE UPPER RIGHT?

EXACTLY.n IT'S GOING TO TELL YOU TO SPENDD 30 SECONDS IN THIS TOP AREA, 3 SECOND ON THE BOTTOM, MAKE YOUR' WAY AROUND ALL THE QUADRANTS FOR A FULL TWO MINUTES.n WHEN I REVIEWED THIS A COUPLEU MONTHS AGO I SAID THIS IS3 RIDICULOUS.n BUT I DON'T SPEND THAT MUCH TIME BRUSHING MY TEETH.

I NEVER THOUGHT ABOUT IT.

IT'S A LONG TIME.

BUT THEY ACTUAL FEED YOU NEWS IN HERE.n

WHILE YOU'RE BRUSHING YOUR' TEETH.

WHILE YOU'RE BRUSHING YOUR' TEETH.

SO IT DISTRACTS YOU A LITTLE BIT.

IF YOU DON'T WANT TO PAY THE $250 FOR THIS THING, JUST LOOK AT YOUR PHONE.

OR LOOK AT YOUR WATCH.n OKAY.n WHY IS THE FORK ON HERE?

THE FORK IS ON HERE IS3 BECAUSE IT ALSO HAS BLUETOOTH IN IT.n ALMOST ALL THESE ODD DEVICES ARE GOING TO HAVE SOME SORT OF CONNECTIVITY TO MAKE OUR LIVES BETTER.n THIS ONE I HAVE TO SAY DID NOT WORK AS WELL AS THE TOOTHBRUSH.n THIS WANTS YOU TO STOP EATING SO FAST.n WHEN PAIRED WITH YOUR APP, ITD WILL KNOW THE INTERVALS YOU'RE EATING.n SO EVERY 10 SECONDS IT TELLS YOU TO PAUSE.n

REALLY?

NO.

I DIDN'T MAKE THIS UP.

YOU TAKE A BITE OF PASTA, YOUU WAIT 10 SECONDS, YOU'RE OKAY.n IF YOU TAKE A BITE IN LESS THANn 10 SECONDS, THAT'S GOING TO VIBRATE AND YOUR PHONE.n

OH, MY GOSH.n

SO YOU CAN KEEP TRACK OF HOWw FAST YOU'RE EATING.n

SO IT'S SLOW DOWN, CHEW YOUR' FOOD NOW DIGITIZED.n

AND LOOK AT YOUR PHONEU CONSTANTLY.n

THAT'S THE LAST THING I NEED.

ALL RIGHT.

SO THE WEIGHT SCALE.

THIS I'M A PROPONENT OF.n I REVOLUTIONIZED MY HEALTH AND FITNESS USING SOME OF THESEU THINGS.n THIS IS THE SCALE.

THIS PAIRS WITH YOUR PHONE TO TELL YOU THE PROGRESS YOU HAVE MADE ON WEIGHT LOSS.

FOR ME THAT HASN'T BEEN SO HELPFUL.

BUT THE DEVICES, THE FITNESS TRACKERS THAT TELL YOU HOW FASTD YOU RAN OR HOW FAR YOU RAN, THEU NUMBER OF STEPS YOU HAVE TAKEN DURING THE DAY.n THE HEART RATE MONITORS.

THAT HELPED ME AS I HAVE TRIED TO GET IN SHAPE THE LAST COUPLEU OF MONTHS.

THESE ARE TRYING TO MAKE YOU A BETTER PERSON IN TERMS OF HEALTH AND FITNESS.

APPLE IS GETTING IN THIS TOO.n THEY HAVE HEALTH IN THEIR NEWw IOS.

IT'S THE FOOD YOU EAT, HOW MUC& WEIGHT YOU HAVE LOST.n

IT'S LIKE THE PERSONALL TRAINER OF THE FUTURE WILL COMEU IN WITH WITH A CART OF ITEMS,L ALONG WITH ALL THE EXERCISES YOU'RE SUPPOSED TO DO, AND HOW MUCH SWEAT, AND ALL OF THESE THINGS TO QUANTIFY AND HOW TO TECH OUT YOUR HOUSE SO YOU ARE DON'T EAT TOO FAST, BRUSH YOUR TEETH ENOUGH.n

I'M NOT EVEN GOING TO TELLL YOU ABOUT THE CONNECTED SPORTS YET.

THANKS SO MUCH.

THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.n

WE'RE GOING TO BE DEMOING A SOURCE CODE SEARCH ENGINE.

IT IS A BETTER SEARCH ENGINE FOR CODE.n

WE ARE BOTH PROGRAMMERS ATD BISHOPS.

IT IS TEDIOUS.

COMMON SEARCH ENGINES HAVEU POUND SIGNS.

FOR US IT'S THE BRACKETS.n THEY ARE CRUCIAL TO PROGRAMMINGw SYNTAX.n IT MAKES IT MORE DIFFICULT TO SEARCH FOR CODE IN A STRUCTUREDD WAY.

WITH THIS IS A PROJECT WEU DEVELOPED.

WE WERE FORTUNATE TO GO TO ONE OF THE BEST SCHOOLS IN THE COUNTRY.

WE BOTH DISCOVERED THAT WE LIKED IT.n

THERE WERE SEVERAL ATTEMPTS TO DEVELOP THIS SEARCH ENGINE.

GOOGLE HAD ITS OWN SERVICE WHICH SHUT DOWN RECENTLY.n

WE SET UP TO DEVELOP A SEARCH ENGINE BY DEVELOPERS FOR DEVELOPERS WITH AS MUC& EXPRESSIVE POWER AS POSSIBLE.n

WE MADE IT AS A PROOF OFf CONCEPT.

WE HAVEN'T DEVELOPED IT UNTIL & FULL SCALE APPLICATION.n BUT IN THE FUTURE THERE'S & POSSIBILITY TO DO THAT.n

WE WANT TO SHOW PEOPLE TO SAY THIS IS SOMETHING THAT'S ACHIEVABLE, IT WORKS WELL, AND PEOPLE WANT TO USE.n

WE WANT TO GET IT OUT THERE AND GET PEOPLE TALKING ABOUT ITD AND KNOW THIS IS ACHIEVABLE.

> WE'VE BEEN HEARING MORE ANDD MORE ABOUT SPACE MISSIONS3 POSSIBLY TO MARS ONE TAKE.

BUT GETTING THERE AND GETTINGw BACK THE IS A PRETTY HUGEU LOGISTICAL CHANGE.

FOR EXAMPLE, FOOD AND WASTE.

WHAT DO DO WITH IT?

NASA HAS A NEW INTERESTING PROGRAM.

RESEARCHERS AT NASA KENNEDY HAVE BUILT A PROTOTYPE REACTOR DESIGNED TO MAKE SOMETHING USEFUL FROM TRASCH ASTRONAUTS3 ACCUMULATE IN SPACE.

THE DEVICE INCINERATES GARBAGE TO PRODUCE METHANE, OXYGEN AND WATER TO TO BE USED FOR ROCKET FUEL, BREATHING AIR AND LIFE SUPPORT.

WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO IS CHANGE THE MIND-SET OF WASTE THAT YOU JUST GET RID OF.n WE WANT TO THINK OF IT AS & RESOURCE.n

REACTOR BEING DEVELOPED CAN FLY AS SOON AS 2018 FOR' DEMONSTRATION ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

BEFORE THAT, THOUGH, THE RESEARCHERS WILL CONTINUE TO LOOK FOR WAYS TO IMPROVE IT.

WE WILL HAVE SOME CHALLENGE MAKING IT SMALLER ANDD LIGHTWEIGHT SO THAT IT IS3 PRACTICAL FOR SPACE APPLICATION.

THE RESEARCH ALSO CAN PAY OFF ON EARTH.n SMALL REACTORS CAN BE USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY IN SMALLL AREAS FROM THE TRASCH PEOPLE PRODUCE ANYWAY.n

IN THIRD WORLD POWERS YOU CAN GET ELECTRICITY FROM SOMETHING THAT IS A WASTE PRODUCT 12K34R WE ARE HERE WITH DR. PAUL HENC FROM NASA.

EXPLAIN WHAT IT MEANS.

TRASCH SO GAS IS A PROCESS WEU TAKE FROM WASTE MATERIALS DURING THE SPACE FLIGHT AND CONVERT THEM INTO A USEFUL COMMODITY LIKE METHANE, WHICH CAN BE USEDD AS A ROCKET PROPELANT OR PUT BACK INTO LIFE SUPPORT FOR THE CREW.n

MOST PEOPLE WILLING SAY, EW,L GROSS, WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

HUMAN WASTE OR JUST WASTE?

HOW DO YOU GET WATER AND METHANE AND EVERYTHING OUT CLEANLY?

WE MEAN EVERY PIECE OF WASTEU THAT'S GENERATED.n A LOT OF THE WASTE IS FOOD PACKAGING.

I DON'T KNOW IF YOU EVER SAW DEHYDRATED ASTRONAUT FOOD.

THE SUITS WHEN THEY WEAR OUT BECOMES WASTE.

IT CAN ALSO HANDLE HUMAN WASTE.n WHAT WE DO IS WE HEAT IT UP.

BASICALLY EVERYTHING BECOMES STERILIZED.n IT CONVERTS TO GAS.n THEY CAN BE CONVERTED INTO METHANE OR BACK TO WATER.n SO REALLY WHAT WE ARE DOING IS RECYCLING YOU AT THE ATOMIC3 LEVEL.

WE WANT TO TAKE THE CARBON,L HYDROGEN AND WATER AND USE THESE DURING THE THE LONG DURATION SPACE FLIGHTS.

DO YOU HAVE A GIANT OVEN ON THE SPACE STATION HEATINGw EVERYTHING?

IT IS A REACTOR.n WE HAVE A FEED SYSTEM.

IT HEATS UP.

IT'S ABOUT 600 TO 900 DEGREES IN THE PROCESS.

THERE'S A RANGE THERE.

YEAH, THAT'S BASICALLY HOW ITD WORKS.

THE GASES FLOW OUT.n WE COLLECT IN THE PROCESS.

WHAT ABOUT ALL THE ENERGY ITD TAKES TO GET THAT OVEN OR' REACTOR GOING?

THE ENERGY IS A SELF-SUSTAINING REACTION.n SO IT IS COMBUSTION.

THERE IS A LITTLE BIT OF OTHER REACTIONS THAT GO ON.n ONCE YOU HAVE THE INITIAL HEAT TO START THE FIRE, IF YOU WILL,L THEN IT CONTINUES TO GO AS LONGw AS YOU HAVE TRASCH.n

OKAY.

SO GIVE ME A MODEL.n HOW MANY POUNDS OF TRASH GO INTO THIS INCINERATOR, REACTOR, AND HOW MUCH ENERGY DO WE GET OUT OF IT?

OR HOW MUCH IS THIS THE TRASH WE ARE NOT USING YET?

WE HAVE A CREW OF FOUR.

IN ONE YEAR, WE PRODUCE ABOUTD 2,500 KILL GRAMS OF WASTE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED INDEED TRASH TO GAS.

WE CAN CONVERT IT TO ABOUT 800 TO 1,500 KILOGRAMS OF METHANE.

IF WE'RE AT 800, WE CAN MAXIMIZE THE WATER THAT WE RETURN.n THAT'S ENOUGH PROPELANT TO GO TO MARS.n FOR THAT.n WHATEVER KEEPS IT IN ORBIT THERE AND IT'S ALSO ENOUGH TO BRINGw 200 KILOGRAM PAY LOAD FROM THATD POINT TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON ONCE A YEAR.

SO IT'S A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OFf PROPELANT AND WE DON'T HAVE TO SHIP FROM EARTH.

SO YOU ARE SAVING THAT LAUNC& COST.n YOU CAN PUT SOMETHING MORE USEFUL WHERE YOU HAVE A SMALLER' VEHICLE.

HOW CRUCIAL IS ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN THIS WAY OR WASTEU MANAGEMENT IN THIS WAY TO EXTEND OUR ABILITY TO STAY IN SPACE AND MAYBE EVEN TRAVEL FURTHER?

IT'S VERY CRUCIAL.n A KEY THING TO ALL OF LONG DURATION SPACE FLIGHTS IS TO GET RESOURCES FROM SOMEWHERE OTHER THAN EARTH.n WE ARE CONSIDERING WASTE MATERIALS FROM THE RESOURCE.

IT'S UP THERE.

NOBODY IS DOING ANYTHING WITH IT NOW.

IT JUST RETURNS TO EARTH OR GETS PACKED IN ONE OF THE SUPPL VEHICLES AND BURNS UP ON RE-ENTRY.n ON A MISSION TO MARS, THERE'S NO RESUPPLY.n IF WE CAN MAKE SOMETHING USEFULL OF IT, IT IS AN ENABLING PART OF THE MISSION.

WHAT HAPPENS TO TRASH INn SPACE?

I TWO THROUGH MY READY TO EATD MEALS OR MIGHT CREATE WAYS.n WHAT HAPPENS TO TRASH AFTER' THEY'RE DONE WITH IT?

IT GETS PACKED INTO IS & CARGO, ORBITAL HAS A VESSEL.

THE DRAGON COMES BACK TO WORK.

THE REST GETS PACKED IN THERE.

WHENEVER THEY'RE READY TO SHIP IT OFF, IT GETS SHIPPED OFF ANDD BURNS UP ON REENTRY LIKE A METEORITE.

IF IT WERE TO BE IMPLEMENTED, HOW SOON COULD WE SEE THIS BEING USED IN SPACE?

WE HAVE ADVANCED PRETTY GOODD TECHNOLOGY LEVEL HERE ON EARTH.n THE KEY ISSUE THAT WE HAVE IS3 ALL OF OUR PROCESS NOW AOUTSZá GRAVITY.

USES GRAVITY.n THERE'S BEEN GREAT WORK ON THE SPACE STATION JUST RECENTL ABOUT PLANES IN SPACE.

IF YOU SEE IT, EVERYTHING BURNS3 DIFFERENTLY.

THINGS BURN AT SPHERES.n OUR REACTORS USE GRAVITY IN THEU PROCESS.

IF NOT, HOW TO WE HAVE TO DESIGN THAT MICRO GRAVITY COMPATIBLEU REACTOR SO IT DOES WHAT WE WANTD IT TO DO AND EXPECT IT TO DO.n

AND THAT WILL TAKE HOW MANY YEARS?

THREE TO FOUR YEARS TO DO THAT TEST.

ONCE THAT'S DONE, WE WOULD BE IN THE DESIGN PHASE FOR THE FULL-SCALE SYSTEM.

THANKS SO MUCH.

ALL RIGHT.n THANK YOU.

> YOU MAY REMEMBER PLAYING CHILD.

ACCORDING TO LEGO, ON AVERAGE, EVERY PEPPER ON THE PLANET OWNS3 86 LEGO BRICKS.n HOW ONE ENTHUSIAST TAKES WHATD HAS BEEN NAMEDS THE TOY OF THE CENTURY TO A NEW LEVEL.n

I STARTED BUILDING LEGO ROBOTS IN COLLEGE.

I FOUND OUT THAT SOME OF M FRIENDS ALSO RECEIVE THE KIT FROM THEIR PARENTS.n AND WE DECIDED TO START A LEGO COMPETITION.

LEGO STARTED OFF AS A SYSTEM TOY WHERE YOU BUILD HOUSES AND CITIES AND SUCH.

WELL, THEN THEY INTRODUCED MINEU STORM SYSTEM TO CONTROL THOSEU WITH MOTORS AND IN CORPORATE SENSORS.

ONE THING I TRULY LOVE ABOUT THE LEGO ROBOTIC SYSTEM IS IT'S NOTD JUST A TOY.n IT'S A LEARNING EXPERIENCE.n THERE ARE KIDS USING THIS3 ROBOTIC SYSTEM FOR EDUCATION.n I'VE SEEN IT FIRSTHAND INn MALAYSIA WORKING WITH CHILDREN,L SEEING THEM INTERACT WITH THEU TOY AND CREATING THINGS THAT US3 ADULTS MAY HAVE NOT EVEN THOUGHT OF.n AND IT'S JUST GREAT MEETING KIDS ACROSS THE WORLD, WORKINGw TOGETHER.n NOT JUST COMPETING BUT ALSO WORKING TOGETHER AND SHARING IDEAS.

AND CREATING AND BUILDING OUR' FUTURE.n SO I LIKE TO CHALLENGE MYSELFf AND CREATE PROJECTS THAT MAN FOLKS WOULD HAVE THOUGHT WEREU IMPOSSIBLE.n ONE OF THOSE EXAMPLES IS M MAKER LEGO BOT.n I'M A BIG FAN OF 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY.n I WANTED TO DEMONSTRATE YOUU COULD DO THAT KIND OF BUILDING WITH LEGO ROBOTICS.n I LEGOS OUT OF A SYSTEM ANDD PUTTING THEM IN ORDER.

IT'S BASICALLY WHATEVER YOU CANn IMAGINE YOU CAN BUILD WITH LEGOS.

LAYING END TO END THE NUMBER' OF BRICKS SOLD IN 2012 WOULD STRETCH AROUND THE WORLD MOREU THAN 18 TIMES.

E AND THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS3 TIME.n FOR MORE ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOG AND INNOVATION VISIT OUR WEBSITE.

CHECK US OUT ON FACEBOOK AND JOIN THE CONVERSATION ON TWITTER.

THANKS FOR WATCHING.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS3 MADE POSSIBLE BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

-- Captions by VITAC --] www.vitac.com] ♪♪