SciTech Now Episode 43

In this episode of SciTech Now, reporter Andrea Vasquez takes us to the world of 3D printing at the Inside 3D Printing Conference and Design Expo in New York City; Eric Arndt of MIT discusses the unique bombardier beetle; Adam Obeng of Columbia University discusses his new app Chirp; a hospital in Florida is developing a new parachute implant for patients suffering from heart disease; and a New Jersey high school is revolutionizing the study of biology with the BioDome: a home for plants and animals.

TRANSCRIPT

COMING UP, THE 3-D PRINTING REVOLUTION.

OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS, WE'LL START SEEING SOFTWARE AND DESIGN APPLICATIONS THAT ALLOW ANYONE TO SUCCESSFULLY MODIFY AND CUSTOMIZE A PERSONALIZED MODEL.

CHEMICAL DEFENSE IN THE NATURAL WORLD.

THESE BEETLES ARE QUITE REMARKABLE.

THEY INITIATE EXPLOSIONS INSIDE OF THEIR BODIES TO PRODUCE A HOT CHEMICAL SPRAY FOR DEFENSE.

HOPE FOR HEART DISEASE.

RICHARD WAS A PERFECT CANDIDATE FOR THIS TYPE OF THERAPY.

IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE PROCEDURE, I COULD TAKE A DEEP BREATH FOR THE FIRST TIME IN TWO YEARS.

AND ENTER THE BIODOME.

IMMERSE THEM IN THE BIOLOGY.

NOT JUST TEACH THEM THE BIOLOGY BUT IMMERSE THEM IN THE BIOLOGY.

WE ADMIRE OUR TEACHERS FOR THE GREAT WORK THAT THEY'VE DONE.

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

HELLO.

I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

WELCOME TO 'SCITECH NOW,' OUR WEEKLY PROGRAM BRINGING YOU THE LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION.

LET'S GET STARTED.

IN THE WORLD OF TECH, ALL EYES ARE ON 3-D PRINTING.

EXPERTS PROMISE THE NEW TECHNOLOGY WILL REVOLUTIONIZE MANUFACTURING, SHRINKING THE NEED FOR ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL FACTORY PRODUCTION.

COMPANIES ACROSS THE 3-D PRINTING INDUSTRY GATHERED IN NEW YORK CITY TO UNVEIL NEW PRINTERS, SCANNERS, AND NEW POSSIBILITIES.

REPORTER ANDREA VASQUEZ HAS THE STORY.

THE INSIDE 3D PRINTING CONFERENCE AND DESIGN EXPO BOASTS 12,000 ATTENDEES, 88 COMPANIES, AND ONE CAR.

1983 CAMARO, AND THEY COMPLETELY ENCAPSULATED IT IN 3-D PRINTING SHAPE AND DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES, 3-D PRINTING RELATED.

THE 3-D CAR'S DESIGNER INCORPORATES 3-D PRINTING INTO HIS ARTWORK.

HE SAYS IT GIVES HIM A NEW WAY TO CREATE.

RIGHT NOW, IT'S FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY WHEN YOU CAN CREATE AN OBJECT IN A VIRTUAL WORLD AND BRING IT TO REALITY THROUGH 3-D PRINTING.

YOU CREATE SOMETHING OUT OF THIN AIR, AND IT BECOMES A TOUCHABLE, REAL OBJECT, SO THESE ARE EXCITING TIMES.

3-D PRINTING GIVES CREATORS THE POWER TO MAKE JUST ABOUT ANYTHING, ON THE SPOT, WITHOUT A FACTORY, VENDOR, OR PARTS.

JONATHAN JAGLOM IS THE C.E.O.

OF THE MAKERBOT, A GLOBAL LEADER IN THE INDUSTRY.

THE WAY WE PITCH IT IS, THAT INDIVIDUAL IS THE CREATOR.

NOW, THE CREATOR CAN MEAN A WHOLE LOT OF THINGS.

IT CAN BE A TINKER MAKER, IT COULD BE A DESIGNER, AN ENGINEER, IT COULD BE A STUDENT, IT COULD BE A TEACHER WANTING TO TEACH AND USE THIS EQUIPMENT FOR TEACHING.

SO THAT CREATOR IS REALLY AT THE CRUX OF ALL THOSE DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS, AND WE, AS MAKERBOT, OUR ROLE IS TO FACILITATE THAT CREATOR.

3-D PRINTING, ALSO CALLED ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, WAS DEVELOPED IN THE 1980s.

LIKE A PAPER PRINTER, DIGITAL FILES ARE CREATED IN DESIGN SOFTWARE AND SENT TO THE PRINTER, WHERE THE ITEM IS CREATED LAYER BY LAYER.

AT FIRST, MANUFACTURERS USED THE TECHNOLOGY MAINLY FOR PROTOTYPING.

THE DESIGNERS, THE ENGINEERS, THE TINKERERS, THE MAKERS LITERALLY HAVE THE PRINTERS RIGHT ON THEIR DESKS, AND THEY CAN PRINT SOMETHING OUT, TAKE IT OUT, ASSESS IT, EVALUATE IT, AND OPTIMIZE THE PRODUCT BEFORE GOING INTO PRODUCTION.

3-D PRINTING HAS MUSHROOMED IN MANUFACTURING, EDUCATION, AND THE CONSUMER SPACE.

A 2014 REPORT BY 3-D PRINTING CONSULTING FIRM WOHLERS ASSOCIATES FORECASTS THE INDUSTRY'S ANNUAL REVENUE WILL MULTIPLY FROM ABOUT $3 BILLION IN 2013 TO MORE THAN $21 BILLION BY THE YEAR 2020.

IT'S GOING TO HAVE A HUGE USE ON THE CONSUMER SIDE, BUT THE REAL MONEY THAT'S GOING TO BE MADE WILL COME FROM TOTALLY REVOLUTIONIZING MANUFACTURING AS WE KNOW IT.

CONSUMERS CAN PRINT FROM A GROWING ONLINE LIBRARY OF DIGITAL DESIGNS.

LUCAS MATHESON IS THE C.E.O.

AND CO-FOUNDER OF PINSHAPE, A MARKETPLACE FOR THESE DESIGNS.

EVERYTHING FROM TOYS AND GAMES AND A LOT OF PRODUCTS THAT ARE FOCUSED ON KIDS TO PRODUCTS THAT ARE AROUND THE HOUSE AND ACTUAL PRODUCTS THAT ARE USED TO FIX THINGS.

COMPANIES AND DESIGNERS SET A PRICE FOR USERS TO ACCESS A FILE, WHICH CAN BE SENT DIRECTLY TO THEIR 3-D PRINTER.

BUT THE DESIGNS CAN BE TWEAKED AND CUSTOMIZED, BRINGING CONCERNS ABOUT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY.

WHAT'S GONNA HAPPEN IS, EVERYONE'S GONNA HAVE A SCANNER IN THEIR POCKET, IN THEIR CELLPHONE, PEOPLE ARE GONNA BE SCANNING MILLIONS OF MODELS AND UPLOADING THEM ONLINE, AND WE'RE GONNA NEED TO REALLY THINK ABOUT HOW THAT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IS MANAGED AND HOW WE'RE ABLE TO IDENTIFY MODELS AND DESIGNS THAT ARE UPLOADED TO THE WEB AND WHOSE PROPERTY IS IT AND WHAT CAN WE DO WITH IT?

A GROWING MARKET OF SCANNERS ALSO MEANS VIRTUALLY ANY OBJECT CAN BE SCANNED AND REPLICATED.

SOME SCANNERS ARE SMALL ENOUGH TO ATTACH TO YOUR iPAD WHILE OTHERS ARE MADE FOR LARGER OBJECTS.

OUR TECHS' SHAPIFY BOOTH DOES A FULL BODY SCAN IN JUST 12 SECONDS AND GENERATES A READY-TO-PRINT FILE IN 15 MINUTES.

IN A FEW HOURS, YOU CAN HAVE A MINI-ME, OR A SHAPEY, AS THE COMPANY CALLS THEM, LIKE MINE, WITH ENOUGH DETAIL TO SEE THE WRINKLES IN YOUR CLOTHES AND THE FLUSH IN YOUR CHEEKS.

WE'LL SEE SUCH BOOTHS AS OURS IN SHOPPING MALLS, IN DISNEYLAND.

RIGHT NOW, WE CAN SEE PHOTO BOOTHS THERE WHERE YOU CAN GET YOUR PHOTOGRAPH, AND IN THE NEARER FUTURE, FULL BODY SCANNERS WILL BE THERE.

EXPERTS PREDICT THAT, IN THE COMING YEARS, WE'LL SEE LIGHTWEIGHT, 3-D PRINTED PARTS FOR CARS AND AIRCRAFTS, MORE OPTIONS FOR AFFORDABLE PROSTHETICS, AND EVEN 3-D PRINTED ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTS.

I WOULD SAY ALMOST EVERY PART OF YOUR BODY WILL BE 3-D PRINTED IF YOU NEED A REPLACEMENT.

IT'S NOTHING SHORT OF SPECTACULAR.

SO THERE'S REALLY NOTHING THAT 3-D PRINTING WON'T TOUCH.

THE BOMBARDIER BEETLE, WHICH MAY NOT BE THE STRONGEST OR THE FASTEST OF ITS KIND, HAS AN INVINCIBLE DEFENSE MECHANISM THAT HAS INTRIGUED SCIENTISTS FOR YEARS.

NEW RESEARCH ON ITS UNIQUE WAY OF PROTECTING ITSELF MAY NOW PROVIDE INFORMATION USEFUL IN THE DESIGN OF PROPULSION SYSTEMS.

ERIC ARNDT, A PhD STUDENT AND MEMBER OF THE RESEARCH TEAM AT ORTIZ LABORATORY AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, IS STUDYING THESE BEETLES.

HE JOINS US NOW TO TELL US MORE.

SO, WHAT DO THESE BEETLES DO, IN A NUTSHELL?

WELL, THESE BEETLES ARE QUITE ARE QUITE REMARKABLE, IN THAT THEY INITIATE EXPLOSIONS INSIDE OF THEIR BODIES TO PRODUCE A HOT CHEMICAL SPRAY FOR DEFENSE.

HOW DO THE BEETLES SURVIVE THE EXPLOSION AND THE CRAZY CHEMICALS?

IT TURNS OUT THAT THE MATERIAL THESE GLANDS ARE MADE OUT OF, WHICH IS CUTICLE, WHICH IS WHAT ALL INSECT EXOSKELETON IS MADE OUT OF, IS VERY GOOD AT RESISTING CHEMICALS.

AND WHILE IT'S NOT YET CLEAR THE SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS THAT ALLOW IT TO SURVIVE THE CHEMICAL AND THE THERMAL NATURE OF THE THREAT, IT IS AN EXCITING AREA FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

OKAY.

SO, YOU SAW THIS HAPPEN HOW?

WE USED AN X-RAY SOURCE, CALLED A SYNCHROTRON, WHICH IS A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR DESIGNED FOR MAKING ULTRA-BRIGHT X-RAY BEAMS, AND WE PLACED THE BEETLE IN THE SYNCHROTRON AND WATCHED USING X-RAYS WHAT HAPPENS INSIDE THE EXPLOSION GLANDS WHEN THE BEETLE SPRAYS.

IN THESE BEETLES, THIS PARTICULAR TYPE OF BOMBARDIER BEETLE, OR AT LEAST 500 AND SO SPECIES OUT OF THE 1,400 SPECIES OF BOMBARDIER BEETLE, THE SPRAY COMES OUT AS A SERIES OF PULSES, AS OPPOSED TO A CONTINUOUS STREAM.

EACH TIME THE BEETLE SPRAYS, IT'S 10 OR 20 EXPLOSIONS IN A ROW -- VERY FAST -- 500 TIMES A SECOND OR UP TO 1,000 TIMES A SECOND.

EACH ONE OF THOSE EXPLOSIONS, YOU SEE THE REACTANTS, THAT ARE THE FUEL FOR THE EXPLOSION, COME INTO THE REACTION CHAMBER, EXPLODE, AND PART OF THE REACTION CHAMBER DEFORMS -- IT DEFORMS QUITE A LOT -- AND WE SEE THIS AS THE VAPOR EXCEEDING THE NATURAL SHAPE OF THE REACTION CHAMBER.

AND SO THIS EXPANSION OF THE REACTION CHAMBER HAPPENS RIGHT WHERE THE VALVE THAT CONTROLS THE FLOW OF FUEL IN.

AND SO THIS EXPANSION CAUSES THE VALVE TO CLOSE, WHICH TEMPORARILY HALTS THE FLOW OF REACTANTS, AND WHEN THE PRESSURE DROPS, THE VALVE REOPENS, MORE REACTANTS COME IN, EXPLOSION, AND THIS IS HOW IT HAPPENS AS A PULSE.

THOUSANDS OF TIMES A SECOND.

UP TO -- FROM OUR MEASUREMENTS -- BETWEEN 300 AND 1,000 TIMES PER SECOND.

THERE IS SOME VARIABILITY FROM BEETLE TO BEETLE.

300 TO 1,000 TIMES A SECOND THERE ARE THESE EXPLOSIONS HAPPENING INSIDE A BEETLE THAT CAUSE A CHEMICAL SPRAY...

YEP.

...TO SHOOT OUT.

OKAY, SO, NOW YOU FIGURED THAT OUT.

WHAT DO YOU DO WITH THAT?

THE REAL PROFOUND TAKEAWAY IS, THIS BEETLE IS USING CHEMICAL ENERGY TO DO WORK, THE WORK BEING THE KINETIC ENERGY OF THE SPRAY TRAVELING OUT AND HITTING ITS PREY -- OR, PREDATOR, RATHER.

IT'S USING A SINGLE PART TO DO THIS.

WHEN WE USE AN ENGINE TO CONVERT CHEMICAL ENERGY -- GASOLINE AND OXYGEN GAS INTO WORK -- IT'S HUNDREDS OF PARTS, AND THEY'RE ALL VERY PRECISE AND PUT IN VERY SPECIFIC PLACES AND MADE OUT OF VERY SPECIFIC MATERIALS.

THE BEETLE IS DOING THIS WITH ONE PART, WHICH IS ITS PYGIDIAL GLAND.

AND IT'S ABLE TO GET THIS COMPLICATED DYNAMICS, THIS COMPLICATED FLUID FLOW, ESSENTIALLY, BY CONTROLLING THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE GLAND WITH VERY, VERY HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION.

SO THE EXPANSION MEMBRANE IS THIS THIN, FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE.

THE REACTION CHAMBER IS MOSTLY THIS STIFF MATERIAL.

THE RESERVOIR, WHICH HOLDS THE FUEL, IS A FLEXIBLE SAC.

AND SO, LOOKING TOWARDS DESIGN, WE WOULD, AS MATERIAL SCIENTISTS, VERY MUCH LIKE TO BE ABLE TO DO THIS.

SO, WHAT HAPPENS WITH THE FINDINGS THAT YOU'VE COME TO NOW?

WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF INDUSTRIES THAT COULD PRODUCE TECHNOLOGIES OR DEVICES THAT WOULD IMPACT US IN OUR DAILY LIVES?

I THINK, YOU KNOW, AEROSPACE AND BIOMEDICAL ARE CERTAINLY -- IT'S GONNA GARNER A LOT OF INTEREST IN THOSE AREAS.

BUT I WANT TO EMPHASIZE, THERE'S STILL A LOT OF FUNDAMENTAL WORK TO BE DONE.

INSECTS, IT TURNS OUT, ARE VERY, VERY GOOD MATERIAL SCIENTISTS, AND THEY -- IF YOU LOOK AT THE MATERIAL THAT THE GLANDS ARE MADE OUT OF, CUTICLE, WHICH IS ALSO THE MATERIAL THE EXOSKELETON'S MADE OUT OF, INSECTS TUNE THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CUTICLE OVER EIGHT ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE, SOMETHING BEING SOFTER THAN SKIN TO BEING AS HARD AS TEETH, USING JUST VERY TINY MODIFICATIONS IN THE CHEMICAL OR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION.

AS MATERIAL SCIENTISTS, WE WOULD LOVE TO BE ABLE TO DO THIS, AND THERE'S LOT OF PEOPLE WORKING VERY HARD TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO DO THIS, BUT WE'RE NOT THERE YET.

AND SO JUST STUDYING THESE KIND OF FUNDAMENTAL SYSTEMS HAS THE POSSIBILITY OF OPENING UP ALL KINDS OF DOORS IN ALL KINDS OF INDUSTRIES.

SO THIS BEETLE HAS NO PREDATORS BECAUSE IT'S SO EFFECTIVE WITH THIS CHEMICAL SPRAY?

WELL, IT TURNS OUT THAT SOME ANIMALS HAVE DEVELOPED CLEVER STRATEGIES FOR DEFEATING THE BEETLE.

FOR EXAMPLE, CERTAIN SPIDERS, IF THE BEETLE WANDERS INTO THEIR WEB, THE SPIDER WILL VERY GENTLY TURN THE BEETLE, WRAPPING IT WITH SILK, WITHOUT CAUSING IT TO SPRAY, AND THEN WHEN THE SPIDER BITES THE BEETLE AND INJECTS ITS VENOM, THE BEETLE SPRAYS, BUT THE SILK CONTAINS THE SPRAY.

ANOTHER EXAMPLE IS, BLUE JAYS WILL PICK UP THE BEETLE WITH THEIR BEAK AND RUB IT AGAINST THEIR FEATHERS, AND THE BEETLE SPRAYS MANY, MANY, MANY TIMES, BUT THE FEATHERS PROTECT THE BIRD, AND WHEN THE BEETLE CAN'T SPRAY ANY MORE, WHICH IS AFTER LIKE 20 OR 30 SPRAYS, THEN THE BIRD EATS THE BEETLE.

ALL RIGHT.

ERIC ARNDT, NO ONE KNOWS MORE ABOUT BEETLES THAN YOU, BUT THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR JOINING US.

WELL, THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

I'M ADAM OBENG.

I'M A PhD STUDENT, ACTUALLY, IN SOCIOLOGY AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.

AND I WON THE HACKNY SPRING HACKATHON THIS YEAR.

I WON FIRST AND SECOND PLACE, ACTUALLY.

SO, SECOND-PLACE PROJECT, WHICH I'M DEMO'ING TODAY, IS CALLED CHIRP.

AND IT STARTED OFF AS A TOOL TO SHORTEN A TWEET.

SO YOU TYPE IN A POTENTIAL TWEET, AND YOU END UP WITH, FOR EACH WORD, SUGGESTIONS OF SHORTER WORDS SO YOU CAN FIT MORE INFORMATION DENSITY INTO THAT.

BUT THEN WE REALIZED THAT THE ULTIMATE SHORTEST WORDS YOU CAN USE ARE EMOJI, SO THE PROJECT NOW IS TO TRANSLATE ENGLISH INTO EMOJI AUTOMATICALLY.

SO WE'RE GONNA START COLLECTING DATA FROM PEOPLE ON AMAZON MECHANICAL TURK ABOUT HOW THEY WOULD TRANSLATE INDIVIDUAL WORDS OR PHRASES, AND THEN WE'RE GOING TO MAKE THAT INTO A STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION ENGINE WHICH WILL CHANGE ENGLISH INTO STRINGS OF EMOJIS.

I'M INTERESTED IN MY SORT OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN HOW PEOPLE COMMUNICATE WITH MACHINES AND BY MEANS OF MACHINES AND ALSO HOW PEOPLE COMMUNICATE IN CONSTRAINED ENVIRONMENTS.

SO ONE OF THE THINGS WE WERE REALLY INTERESTED TO DISCOVER IS WHETHER THERE IS SOME SORT OF GRAMMAR TO EMOJIS, IF YOU CONSIDER IT AS CONSTRAINED LANGUAGE, WHICH PEOPLE, HAVING BEEN EXPOSED TO EMOJI, WOULD BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND RELATIVELY COMPLEX PHRASES.

OR WEATHER, FOR EXAMPLE.

DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES OF USERS HAVE DIFFERENT GRAMMARS, DIFFERENT UNDERSTANDINGS OF WHICH EMOJI WOULD CORRESPOND TO WHICH ENGLISH WORD OR CONCEPT.

FOR RICHARD MURPHY, A FORMER PARATROOPER IN THE GULF WAR, PARACHUTES HAVE SAVED HIS LIFE IN MORE WAYS THAN ONE.

AFTER SUFFERING FROM CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, MURPHY RECEIVED A PARACHUTE IMPLANT, WHICH HELPED SAVE HIS LIFE.

JOIN US AS WE SPEAK WITH HIM.

JUST OUT OF HIGH SCHOOL, I JOINED THE ARMY.

I WAS A PARATROOPER, AND I SERVED IN THE GULF WAR.

EVERY TIME A PARATROOPER JUMPS OUT OF AN AIRPLANE, THEY'RE COUNTING ON THEIR PARACHUTE TO OPEN TO SAVE THEIR LIFE, AND IT DID ON NUMEROUS OCCASIONS, AND I'M QUITE PROUD OF THAT.

AT AGE 40, RICHARD'S LIFE WAS GREAT.

NO LONGER SERVING IN THE ARMY, HE WAS RUNNING A NEW BUSINESS AND RECENTLY HAD BECOME ENGAGED.

IT WAS EARLY OCTOBER.

IT WAS BEAUTIFUL OUTSIDE, THE LEAVES WERE CHANGING.

WE WERE IN LOVE, HAD JUST GOTTEN ENGAGED.

HE WAS ABOUT A YEAR INTO HIS NEW BUSINESS, AND THINGS WERE VERY EXCITING.

AND THEN...

I STARTED TO SWEAT.

I HAD REALLY TIGHT CHEST PAINS.

HIS HEART BLOCKED UP 100%, HIS L.A.D., WHICH IS THE MAIN ARTERY, IN YOUR LEFT VENTRICLE.

THE NEXT THING THAT I REMEMBER IS WAKING UP IN THE HOSPITAL WITH A DOCTOR YELLING, 'MR. MURPHY! MR. MURPHY!

DO YOU KNOW WHERE YOU ARE?'

WHEN I FOUND OUT I HAD CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, AND I FOUND OUT JUST HOW BAD THE HEART ATTACK REALLY WAS, I LOST A LOT OF HOPE.

I SPENT NIGHT AND DAY FOR ALMOST A YEAR, I THINK, RESEARCHING, SENDING E-MAILS TO DIFFERENT CLINICAL TRIALS, AND THEN FINALLY FOUND THE PARACHUTE TRIAL AT FLORIDA HOSPITAL, PEPIN.

HE WAS EVALUATED BY DR.

CHARLES LAMBERT, THE MEDICAL DIRECTOR AT THE PEPIN HEART INSTITUTE AT FLORIDA HOSPITAL, IN TAMPA.

RICHARD WAS A PERFECT CANDIDATE FOR THIS TYPE OF THERAPY -- VERY, VERY POOR VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND VERY LIMITED IN WHAT HE COULD DO.

DR. LAMBERT DETERMINED THAT RICHARD COULD BENEFIT FROM THE PARACHUTE IMPLANT, A NEW DEVICE FROM CARDIOKINETICS, THAT IS CURRENTLY GOING THROUGH CLINICAL TRIALS.

WELL, THE PARACHUTE TRIAL INVOLVES AN IMPLANTABLE DEVICE THAT'S VERY UNIQUE.

THE PROCEDURE WAS DONE IN THE CARDIAC CATH LAB AT PEPIN.

DR. LAMBERT EXPLAINS HOW THEY USE THE LATEST IMAGING TECHNIQUES TO GUIDE THEM THROUGHOUT THE PROCEDURE.

SO, THESE IMAGES ARE TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC IMAGES.

ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE SCREEN IS PRE-PROCEDURE.

ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE SCREEN IS POST-PROCEDURE.

THERE'S A TRANSDUCER UP AT THIS PART OF THE IMAGE.

THIS CAVITY HERE IS THE LEFT VENTRICLE.

THIS IS THE RIGHT VENTRICLE.

THIS IS THE MITRAL VALVE.

THIS IS THE TRICUSPID VALVE.

AND YOU CAN SEE IN THE PRE-PROCEDURE IMAGE, THIS PARTICULAR PATIENT'S HEART IS NOT REALLY CONTRACTING WELL AT ALL.

AFTER EVALUATING THE HEART'S EFFICIENCY, THEY USE THE CINEANGIOGRAM, OR X-RAY MOVIES, TO GUIDE THEM TO IMPLANT THE DEVICE IN THE LEFT VENTRICLE.

THESE ARE WIRES FROM THE PATIENT'S DEFIBRILLATOR PACEMAKER.

THIS IS THE AORTA, OR THE BLOOD VESSEL THAT LEADS OUT OF THE HEART.

AND THIS IS A CATHETER SHAPED LIKE A LITTLE PIGTAIL.

IT'S INJECTING DYE SO WE CAN SEE THE CHAMBER.

AND THEN THROUGH THE LEG, A VERY LARGE DELIVERY SYSTEM, CATHETER SYSTEM, IS BROUGHT UP OVER THE ARCH OF THE AORTA, DOWN THROUGH THE AORTIC VALVE, INTO THE VERY END OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE.

ANIMATION PROVIDED BY CARDIOKINETICS, SHOWS A CATHETER SYSTEM WHERE THE END OF THE DEVICE IS PLACED AT THE APEX, OR BOTTOM, OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE.

AND ONCE WE'RE SURE THAT WE'RE IN EXACTLY THE RIGHT SPOT DOWN HERE, WE START THE TO WITHDRAW THE SHEATH, THE BIG CATHETER, A LITTLE BIT AT A TIME... UNTIL THE DEVICE IS RELEASED.

YOU CAN SEE HERE, AND THERE'S A BALLOON THAT'S INSIDE OF THAT DEVICE, AND WHEN IT'S UNSHEATHED, AND THE TINES CAN GO OUT, THE BALLOON IS INFLATED VERY, VERY QUICKLY TO MAKE SURE THAT THE TINES ACTUALLY SEAT IN THE INTERIOR OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE.

THIS IS ALL DONE VERY QUICKLY, BECAUSE, OBVIOUSLY, THIS IS HOLDING THE VALVE OPEN, AND WE WANT TO MINIMIZE THE RISK OF STROKE OR OTHER COMPLICATIONS.

THE BALLOON IS THEN DEFLATED.

REMEMBER, THERE WAS A BALLOON PICTURE IN HERE.

IT'S BROUGHT BACK INTO THE CATHETER, AND THE CATHETER IS PUT BACK DOWN OVER ITS ATTACHMENT SITE.

WE TAKE A PICTURE TO MAKE SURE THAT THE PARACHUTE'S IN THE APPROPRIATE DEVICE.

AND YOU CAN SEE THERE'S A SPACE BETWEEN THE EDGE OF THE PARACHUTE, AND IF YOU LOOK RIGHT HERE WHERE THERE'S DYE, WHERE THE LEFT VENTRICLE IS, LITTLE BIT OF DYE CREEPS IN THERE, AND OVER TIME, THAT GOES AWAY.

IT FILLS UP WITH A CLOT AND PANNUS FORMATION, AND THAT'S REALLY THE VOLUME OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE, WHICH IS EXCLUDED BY THE DEVICE.

AND AT THE END OF THE PROCEDURE, WE TAKE A PICTURE OF THE ARTERY THAT WAS USED TO INTRODUCE THE WHOLE SYSTEM UP, AND WE CLOSE THAT OFF, AND THAT'S THE END OF THE PROCEDURE.

AFTER THE PROCEDURE, DR. LAMBERT TAKES ANOTHER LOOK USING THE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC IMAGES TO EVALUATE THE HEART'S FUNCTION WITH THE NEW DEVICE.

NOW, THAT BASIC FUNCTION OF THE HEART HASN'T CHANGED, BUT WHAT THE DEVICE HAS DONE, FUNCTIONALLY, IS EXCLUDED THIS WHOLE PORTION OF THE LEFT VENTRICULAR APEX.

SO THAT'S A DEAD VOLUME, WHICH NOW BLOOD IS ACTUALLY NOT GETTING TO IT ANYMORE.

IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE PROCEDURE, I WAS SITTING IN MY HOSPITAL ROOM.

AND EVERYBODY WAS MAKING A FUSS, AND I COULD TAKE A DEEP BREATH FOR THE FIRST TIME IN TWO YEARS.

SO I NOTICED THE RESULTS IMMEDIATELY.

HE REALLY FELT BETTER.

GOT UP, JUST ABOUT RAN OUT OF THE HOSPITAL.

SO, PERFECT PATIENT, PERFECT OUTCOME.

YOU KNOW, IT'D BE NICE IF EVERYBODY WAS THAT PERFECT.

WE WENT FROM NOT KNOWING WHAT THE FUTURE HELD AND TO BEING PRETTY GRIM, AND NOW OUR FUTURE IS SO EXCITING.

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IS THE NUMBER-ONE CAUSE OF DEATH IN THE UNITED STATES.

IF THERE ARE 500,000 TO 600,000 NEW HEART ATTACKS EVERY YEAR, IT'S A BIG PROBLEM.

BUT A LOT OF PATIENTS THERE IS NO OPTION FOR.

SO IT'S A LOT OF POTENTIAL PATIENTS WITH POTENTIALLY A GREAT BENEFIT FOR THEM.

AND THE BENEFITS FOR RICHARD AND ALLISON JUST INCREASED BY ONE.

WELL, AFTER ALL THE MIRACLES THAT WE'VE ALREADY BEEN PROVIDED, WE'RE HAVING ANOTHER MIRACLE.

MY WIFE IS PREGNANT.

WE'RE EXPECTING A LITTLE GIRL.

WE'VE BEEN GETTING HER FURNITURE PUT TOGETHER.

I HAVE A CLOSET FULL OF CLOTHES THAT, HONESTLY, WE JUST GO IN AND PLAY WITH AND LOOK AT ALL OF IT.

WE'RE VERY EXCITED ABOUT HER.

YEAH, IT'S PRETTY AMAZING THAT 20 YEARS AFTER BEING A PARATROOPER THAT I WOULD NEED ANOTHER PARACHUTE INSIDE OF MY HEART TO SAVE MY LIFE.

STUDENTS AT BAYONNE HIGH SCHOOL IN NEW JERSEY ARE BEING TAUGHT BIOLOGY IN A NEW, MORE IMMERSIVE MANNER.

THE SCHOOL HAS CREATED A BIODOME HOUSING MORE THAN 200 DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS TO HELP STUDENTS LEARN SCIENCE FIRSTHAND.

THIS RABBIT, NAMED SNOWBALL, IS A NEW DAD, AND THESE STUDENTS AT BAYONNE HIGH SCHOOL CAN GET UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL TO SEE HOW HE RAISES HIS CHILDREN IN THE BIODOME.

THE BIODOME IS A ROOM FILLED WITH MORE THAN 600 ORGANISMS FROM 200 DIFFERENT SPECIES, FROM CHINCHILLAS TO LIZARDS.

IT'S ALL PART OF THE SCHOOL'S NEW STEM ACADEMY, FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATH.

MOST OF OUR TANKS, NO, THEY'RE NOT JUST ANIMALS PUT IN A TANK WITH FOOD.

NO, THEY ARE ECOSYSTEMS.

BEFORE THE BIODOME WAS BUILT, ADMINISTRATORS ASKED TWO OF THE SCHOOL'S BIOLOGY TEACHERS HOW THEY COULD TAKE TEACHING SCIENCE TO A NEW LEVEL?

IMMERSE THEM IN THE BIOLOGY.

NOT JUST TEACH THEM THE BIOLOGY BUT IMMERSE THEM IN THE BIOLOGY.

SO THEY ASKED FOR AND RECEIVED THIS SPACE, THANKS TO A $50,000 DONATION FROM CAREPOINT HEALTH.

BY WORKING WITH THE ANIMALS, STUDENTS ARE EXPLORING BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, TREATING SICK ANIMALS, AND LEARNING ABOUT EVOLUTION.

LOOKING AT HOW THE SNAKES AND LIZARDS ARE SO CLOSELY RELATED, OR EVEN HOW THE BUNNIES AND CHINCHILLAS ARE THAT CLOSELY RELATED.

IF A PREDATOR WERE TO COME AND GET HER, SHE CAN DETACH HER TAIL AND GET AWAY.

THE CURATORS OF THE BIODOME CALL THIS A LIVING LABORATORY AND SAY THAT WHEN THE STUDENTS GET TO SEE THE ANIMALS UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL, THEIR WHOLE WORLD OPENS UP.

AND THEIR WORK HAS TURNED INTO WINS.

WE HAD OUR HUDSON COUNTY SCIENCE FAIR, AND WE WERE ABLE TO GET A GOLD MEDAL IN THE CATEGORY OF ANIMALS.

I DID A SCIENCE-FAIR PROJECT ON THE DIFFERENT RESPIRATION RATES AND HEART RATES OF GERBILS.

THE CURATORS SAY THEY ARE MAKING HISTORY AS THE FIRST SCHOOL IN THE STATE TO HAVE A STEM PROGRAM THAT ALLOWS STUDENTS TO EXPLORE MORE THAN ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY, AND MATH.

WE ARE ONE OF THE FIRST DISTRICTS TO BRING IN A BIG BIOLOGY COMPONENT TO IT.

WE ADMIRE OUR TEACHERS FOR THE GREAT WORK THAT THEY'VE DONE.

AND THE STUDENTS ARE BEING ADMIRED BY THE TEACHERS FOR THE WORK THEY HAVE DONE IN THE PROGRAM.

AND THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS TIME.

FOR MORE ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION, VISIT OUR WEBSITE.

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UNTIL NEXT TIME, I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

THANKS FOR WATCHING.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.