SciTech Now Episode 39

In this episode of SciTech Now, we take a look at how illegal hunting of deer and elk antlers is sparking controversy in the backcountry wilderness of Oregon and putting the animals in danger; we meet Dr. Kate Mansfield and the turtles she is tracking; Hari Sreenivasan sits down with serial entrepreneur Brian Hecht to discuss nutrition startups; we step inside an aquaponics farm in Florida that is revolutionizing the way we grow food sustainably and we get a visit from the Dinosaur Whisperer Dustin Growick to discuss the accuracies and inaccuracies of the dinosaurs portrayed in the recent film Jurassic World.

TRANSCRIPT

COMING UP, STOPPING WILDLIFE POACHERS IN THEIR TRACKS.

IT'S AMAZING HOW THEY CAN FIND THAT MANY IN A SHORT TIME, BUT HOW CAN YOU PROVE IT?

BY US BEING THERE, HOPEFULLY WE CAN CATCH THEM GOING INTO THOSE CACHES.

ANALYZING FOOD BEYOND THE LABEL.

THERE'S BEEN THIS REVOLUTION IN MAKING FOOD WHERE THERE ARE FOOD ENTREPRENEURS.

YOU MAKE THE PRODUCT ONE DAY.

YOU SEND IT OUT.

BY THE WEEKEND, YOU GET THIS LABEL.

YOU CAN SLAP IT ON YOUR PICKLED STRING BEANS AND BE OUT AT THE FARMERS' MARKET.

FARMING OF THE FUTURE.

I THINK IT'S THE BEST WAY TO GROW FOOD.

IT'S SUSTAINABLE.

IT'S ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY.

IT USES LESS THAN 10% OF THE WATER THAT'S USED IN TRADITIONAL SOIL AGRICULTURE.

AND DINO MANIA -- FACT VERSUS FICTION.

PROBLEMS THAT EXIST -- WE NOW KNOW THAT A LOT OF T-REX'S RELATIVES HAD AT LEAST SOME DOWNY TUFTS, SOME PROTO-FEATHERS AT THE VERY LEAST, SO WHY NOT ADD A LITTLE PROTO-FEATHERS TO T-REX?

ALSO, WAY TOO BIG STILL.

THEY DEFINITELY EXAGGERATED THE SIZE OF T-REX.

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

HELLO. I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

WELCOME TO 'SciTech NOW,' OUR WEEKLY PROGRAM BRINGING YOU THE LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION.

LET'S GET STARTED.

HUNTING DOESN'T ALWAYS HAVE TO MEAN KILLING.

SOME TROPHIES ARE WAITING TO BE FOUND IF YOU KNOW WHEN AND WHERE TO LOOK.

FORAGING FOR ANTLERS SHED NATURALLY BY ELK IS PERFECTLY LEGAL, BUT POACHERS TRYING TO BEAT EVERYONE TO THE PUNCH ARE ALL-TOO-WILLING TO BREAK THE RULES, EVEN WHEN IT MEANS PUTTING THE ANIMALS AT RISK.

THE ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS TEAM EarthFix HAS THE STORY.

IT'S MID-MORNING IN THE BACKCOUNTRY OF CENTRAL OREGON.

I CAN SEE IT!

WHERE?

WHAT?

YOU TELL ME WHEN YOU SEE IT.

YOU GUYS WANT TO LOOK AT IT.

TROY CAPPS AND HIS FAMILY ARE ON A MISSION.

YOU GOT IT!

THEY'RE SEARCHING FOR ANTLERS.

IT'S JUST EXCITEMENT, I GUESS, OF BEING OUT THERE AND, YOU KNOW, WALKING AROUND AND WHEN YOU FIND ONE, REALIZING THAT YOU'RE STANDING RIGHT THERE AT THE MOMENT THAT DEER DROPPED ITS ANTLERS.

IT'S PRETTY EXCITING TO KNOW, YOU KNOW, IT WAS RIGHT HERE, AND I FOUND IT.

THAT'S WHAT WE'RE LOOKING FOR RIGHT THERE.

DEER AND ELK NATURALLY SHED THEIR ANTLERS EVERY YEAR.

IT'S KIND OF LIKE WHEN A CHILD LOSES A BABY TOOTH.

[ LAUGHS ]

THREE-POINT.

[ LAUGHS ] CALL TERESA.

YOU GOT TO TELL HER.

FOUND ONE!

THE SPORT OF SEARCHING FOR THEM IS CALLED SHED HUNTING, BUT NOT EVERYONE IS AS ETHICAL AS THE CAPPS FAMILY.

HUNTING FOR ANTLERS CAN SEEM LIKE A HARMLESS, FUN GAME.

BUT THERE'S AN UGLY SIDE.

SHED HUNTING IS ILLEGAL WHEN PEOPLE TRESPASS ONTO PRIVATE PROPERTY OR PROTECTED AREAS.

WHEN NOBODY'S WATCHING, SOME PEOPLE WILL CHASE ELK ON FOOT OR WITH ATVs.

THE STRESS OF BEING CHASED CAN MAKE ELK SHED THEIR ANTLERS PREMATURELY.

IT CAN ALSO SPARK A STAMPEDE, AND STAMPEDING ELK CAN WIND UP SICK, INJURED, OR DEAD.

THIS KIND OF ACTIVITY PROMPTED CAPPS TO HELP START OREGON SHED HUNTERS.

THE GROUP PROMOTES ETHICAL SHED HUNTING -- NO CUTTING FENCES, NO DESTROYING HABITAT, NO HARASSING ANIMALS TO GET THEM TO DROP THEIR ANTLERS FASTER.

YOU'RE AN OFFICIAL OREGON SHED HUNTER...

I GUESS I AM.

...INDUCTEE.

THAT'S NOT BAD, HUH?

THAT IS REALLY GOOD.

TO BE OUT THERE, ESPECIALLY WITH AN ATV, TRYING TO CHASE A DEER AROUND UNTIL IT DROPS OR EVEN BEING OUT THERE, YOU KNOW, RUNNING THEM AROUND, THAT'S -- THAT'S JUST NOT HEALTHY FOR THEM, AND IT'S NOT HEALTHY FOR THE SPORT.

YOU'VE PROBABLY SEEN ANTLERS USED AS ART OR TO BUILD FURNITURE.

HUNTERS CAN SELL ANTLERS FOR UP TO $35 A POUND.

A PRIZED SET OF ANTLERS FROM A TROPHY ELK CAN BRING IN THOUSANDS.

YOU KNOW, THE COMMERCIAL MARKET ON THESE IS, PEOPLE LIKE TO JUST HAVE THEM AROUND.

SOME PEOPLE DO.

WILDLIFE ENFORCEMENT OFFICER RICHARD MANN IS ON THE WATCH FOR ILLEGAL SHED HUNTING IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON.

HE SAYS IT'S ESPECIALLY CRUEL.

ILLEGAL SHED HUNTERS CHASE ELK WHEN THE ANIMALS ARE AT THEIR MOST VULNERABLE.

THEY'RE IN POOR BODY CONDITION, NOT A LOT OF FAT LEFT, SO IF THEY'RE MADE TO RUN, THEY'RE STRESSED.

IT PUTS THEM IN A CONDITION WHERE THEY MAY NOT FALL DEAD WHEN YOU'RE LOOKING AT THEM RIGHT THERE, BUT UP TO A DAY OR SO AFTER THAT STRESSED HAS OCCURRED, IT HAS AN IMPACT ON THEM, AND WE LOSE ELK.

THEY DIE BECAUSE OF IT.

IF CAUGHT IN A CLOSED WINTERING AREA, ILLEGAL SHED HUNTERS GET A TRESPASSING TICKET.

CITATIONS CAN BE AS STEEP AS $1,000, BUT THEY'RE USUALLY LOWER THAN THAT.

IT IS LEGAL TO SEARCH FOR ANTLERS ALL YEAR AS LONG AS THE PLACE YOU'RE LOOKING ISN'T CLOSED TO PROTECT ANIMALS.

COME ON, GO ON.

LET'S GO FOR A WALK.

ONE NORTHWEST GROUP IS WORKING TO PROTECT ELK ON THEIR WINTERING GROUNDS.

KYLE WINTON IS THE CO-FOUNDER OF EYES IN THE WOODS.

TAKING A CAMERA THAT WAS A PROBLEM CAMERA OUT IN THE FIELD, AND I'M TESTING IT TO SEE IF IT STILL CONTINUES TO FAIL.

THE GROUP HIDES CAMERAS IN CLOSED AREAS.

THEY'VE CAUGHT PEOPLE WITH ATVs, PEOPLE WITH DOGS, AND PEOPLE ON FOOT.

SO, NOW THIS ONE SHOULD START DOWNLOADING.

WINTON SAYS ILLEGAL HUNTERS STOCKPILE ANTLERS THEY'VE COLLECTED ALL WINTER.

THEN THEY CARRY THE ANTLERS OUT ONCE THE GATES OPEN.

IT'S AMAZING HOW THEY CAN FIND THAT MANY IN A SHORT TIME, BUT HOW CAN YOU QUESTION THEM BECAUSE HOW CAN YOU PROVE IT?

SO, BY US BEING THERE, HOPEFULLY WE CAN CATCH THEM GOING INTO THOSE CACHES.

IT'S DAWN ON MAY 1st.

THIS IS THE OPENING DAY OF SHED HUNTING IN OAK CREEK WILDLIFE AREA OUTSIDE YAKIMA.

THESE HUNTERS ARE PLAYING BY THE RULES.

THEY'VE WAITED ALL WINTER.

SOME CAMPED OUT ALL NIGHT TO BE AMONG THE FIRST TO ENTER.

[ ENGINE IDLING ] [ ENGINES REVVING ] BY NOW, THE ELK HAVE MIGRATED INTO THE MOUNTAINS.

THEY'RE SAFELY AWAY FROM THE RUCKUS.

FOR MORE STORIES IN EarthFix'S WILDLIFE TRAFFICKING INVESTIGATION, VISIT OUR WEBSITE.

THIS IS A FIELD WHERE THERE ARE A LOT OF DATA GAPS.

LIKE, WHERE DO THESE ANIMALS GO?

WHAT ARE THEY DOING?

AND I'M ABLE TO USE SOME NEAT TECHNOLOGIES TO FIGURE THAT OUT.

TRADITIONALLY, SATELLITE TAGS HAVE BEEN TOO HEAVY TO BE ABLE TO PUT ON SMALL, LITTLE TURTLES THAT ARE GONNA BE SWIMMING.

ANYTHING THAT WE PUT ON THEM, WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY DON'T SINK.

WITH USING SOLAR TAGS THAT WERE ACTUALLY DEVELOPED FOR BIRDS, WE WERE ABLE TO MINIMIZE THE SIZE AND THE WEIGHT OF THE TAGS AND PUT THEM ON THE TURTLES, BUT WE HAD TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO ATTACH THE TAGS SO THEY'D STAY ON FOR MORE THAN, YOU KNOW, A FEW DAYS.

WHAT WE ENDED UP DOING IS, WE WORKED IN TANKS, AND WE TESTED A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT METHODS.

AND INITIALLY, WE DIDN'T HAVE VERY MUCH LUCK.

THE SHELLS OF THE TURTLES ARE MADE OF KERATIN, WHICH IS THE SAME THING AS OUR FINGERNAILS.

SO, WE ENDED UP TALKING TO A MANICURIST WHO RECOMMENDED THAT WE USE AN ACRYLIC BASE COAT.

SO, THESE TAGS, WHEN ATTACHED, WILL STAY ON FOR UPWARDS OF SIX MONTHS, AND WE CAN TRACK THEIR LONG-TERM MOVEMENTS.

THESE ARE THE VERY FIRST SATELLITE TRACKS TO EXAMINE THE LONG-TERM MOVEMENTS OF THESE LOST-YEAR SEA TURTLES.

BEFORE, WE HAD HYPOTHESES ON WHERE THEY WENT BASED ON OPPORTUNISTIC SIGHTINGS AND ENCOUNTERS, BUT WITH THE SATELLITE TELEMETRY, WE'RE ABLE TO SEE WHERE THEY ACTUALLY WENT, AND WE CAN LEARN A LOT MORE ABOUT THEIR MOVEMENTS AND BEHAVIOR THAT WAY.

THANKS TO A LAW PASSED BY THE FDA IN 1990, NUTRITIONAL LABELS ARE FOUND ON MANY FOOD PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES, BUT 25 YEARS LATER, WE'RE STILL STRUGGLING TO MAKE SMART FOOD CHOICES IN SPITE OF THE INFORMATION IN FRONT OF US.

NOW, SOME START-UPS AND ENTREPRENEURS ARE REVOLUTIONIZING THE WAY WE LEARN ABOUT WHAT'S ON OUR PLATE.

HERE TO DISCUSS THE TREND IS BRIAN HECHT, OUR RESIDENT SERIAL ENTREPRENEUR, A VETERAN OF MULTIPLE START-UPS, AND ADVISOR TO MANY DIGITAL TEAMS, INCLUDING OUR OWN.

SO, WHEN I SEE THE LABEL ON THE BACK OF THE, YOU KNOW, UNFORTUNATELY, CANDY BAR OR GRANOLA BAR, WHATEVER THAT IS, I ALWAYS THINK, 'OH, WELL, YOU KNOW, THIS HAS BEEN THROUGH SOME SORT OF A PROCESS,' AND -- BUT THAT'S NOT NECESSARILY THE CASE.

YOU CAN ACTUALLY PRINT OUT A RECIPE YOURSELF NOW OR A -- OR A NUTRITION LABEL YOURSELF.

YEAH, THAT'S RIGHT.

THERE'S BEEN THIS REVOLUTION IN MAKING FOOD WHERE THERE ARE FOOD ENTREPRENEURS, WHO WERE PART OF THE MAKER MOVEMENT, AND IT MIGHT BE CHILI-FLAVORED PICKLED STRING BEANS THAT ARE MADE IN A BASEMENT IN BROOKLYN.

THERE'S A LOT OF INNOVATION THERE, AND, YOU KNOW, IT MIGHT BE TWO GUYS, AND THEY WANT TO BRING IT TO THE FOOD MARKET AND TEST IT OUT, BUT IT USED TO BE COST-PROHIBITIVE.

THEY WOULD HAVE TO SEND IT TO A LAB, GET IT ANALYZED, GET THE LABELS PRINTED.

NOW THERE'S A SERVICE -- YOU KNOW, ReciPal IS A REALLY GOOD EXAMPLE.

THEY'RE HERE IN NEW YORK -- VERY SCRAPPY START-UP.

YOU CAN UPLOAD YOUR INGREDIENTS, AND YOU CAN EITHER GET ELECTRONICALLY OR ACTUALLY HAVE PRINTED OUT FOR YOU THOSE LABELS.

SO, YOU MAKE THE PRODUCT ONE DAY.

YOU SEND IT OUT.

BY THE WEEKEND, YOU GET THIS LABEL.

YOU CAN SLAP IT ON YOUR PICKLED STRING BEANS AND BE OUT AT THE FARMERS' MARKET AND START SELLING.

RIGHT, SO THAT'S ONE PART OF IT, BUT THEN THERE'S STILL THIS BIG GAP OF, WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ALL THAT INFORMATION'S ACTUALLY ON THE LABEL AND PEOPLE STILL AREN'T JAZZED ENOUGH BY IT TO CHANGE THEIR EATING BEHAVIORS, RIGHT?

RIGHT, WELL, THAT'S REALLY THE PROBLEM.

THOSE LABELS -- THEY SORT OF HAVE SIMULTANEOUSLY TOO MUCH AND TOO LITTLE INFORMATION.

I MEAN, THERE ARE THINGS LIKE, HOW MUCH VITAMIN 'A' IS ON THERE, RIGHT?

AND, YOU KNOW, THAT'S, I GUESS, A NICE NUMBER TO KNOW, BUT IT'S NOT HELPFUL UNLESS THERE'S CONTEXT.

HOW MUCH DO I NEED?

YOU KNOW, WHAT IS IT IMPORTANT FOR?

SO, THERE'S A WHOLE GENERATION OF COMPANIES NOW THAT ARE BRIDGING THAT GAP AND TAKING THAT INFORMATION AND MAKING IT ACTUALLY USEFUL AND ACTIONABLE FOR PEOPLE.

ONE REALLY NEAT COMPANY IS CALLED SAGE.

IT'S sage.is, AND THEY PRESENT YOU WITH A DASHBOARD WHERE NOT ONLY DO THEY HAVE ALL OF THE KEY NUTRIENT INFORMATION -- IT'S VERY BEAUTIFULLY PRESENTED WITH GRAPHICS AND DIFFERENT PANELS YOU CAN MOUSE OVER -- BUT IN ADDITION, THEY ADD VALUE BY HAVING ANALYTICS.

SO, FOR EXAMPLE, THEY WILL SAY, 'HOW MUCH EXERCISE OF WHICH TYPE WILL IT TAKE TO BURN OFF THE CALORIES THAT YOU ATE WHEN YOU HAD THAT CANDY BAR?'

RIGHT, IT'LL SAY, 'THIS IS NOT HIGH ENOUGH IN FIBER IF YOU'RE TRYING TO GET FIBER.

IT'S TOO HIGH IN SODIUM IF YOU'RE TRYING TO DO THAT,' AND IT'S CROWD-SOURCED BY -- CROWD-SOURCED BY NUTRITIONISTS.

MM.

SO, IT'S ACTUALLY VALIDATED BY PROFESSIONALS, SO THEY'RE ADDING MORE AND MORE PRODUCTS RIGHT NOW SO YOU CAN MAKE A GROCERY LIST AND TAKE IT TO THE SUPERMARKET AND EVENTUALLY TURN MONEY.

I'M SURE THEY'LL HAVE E-COMMERCE SO YOU CAN MAKE A LITTLE...

RIGHT.

...YOU KNOW, BASKET AND ORDER IT ALL FROM AMAZON OR SOMETHING.

RIGHT, AND WHAT ABOUT THE -- KIND OF THE BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS END AND HOW THIS LANDSCAPE IS CHANGING, I GUESS, AND IF NUTRITION TECH IS A THING AND IF YOU HAVE FRONT-END COMPANIES LIKE SAGE OR TALKING TO CONSUMERS, WHAT HAPPENS BEHIND THE SCENES?

WELL, THERE'S A REAL REVOLUTION THERE, AND IT'S MOSTLY HIDDEN FROM THE CONSUMER, BUT IT'S PRETTY MIND-BLOWING.

SO, THERE ARE INCREDIBLE COMPANIES LIKE FoodEssentials, AND WHAT THEY DO IS, THEY HAVE A SECRET SAUCE, WHICH IS AN ALGORITHM, AND THEY SCORE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF FOODS, AND THEY COME UP WITH 13,000 DIFFERENT VARIABLES.

IT'S LIKE A BIG DATA PLAY -- NOT JUST WHAT INGREDIENTS ARE IN THEM BUT HOW THEY COMBINE WITH EACH OTHER AND WHAT THEY MEAN IN TERMS OF, IS IT GLUTEN-FREE?

IS IT LOW SODIUM?

SO, THERE'S TWO DIFFERENT CLIENTS FOR THAT KIND OF INFORMATION.

ONE ARE THINGS LIKE SUPERMARKETS, FOOD RETAILERS.

SO, THEY HAVE THOUSANDS OR TENS OR HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PRODUCTS IN A STORE, BUT THEY DON'T HAVE ONE BIG DATABASE THAT SAYS, WHAT ARE THE ATTRIBUTES OF ALL OF THEM?

SO, LET'S SAY THEY WANT TO DO A GLUTEN-FREE DISPLAY.

THEY'RE GONNA KNOW WHICH PRODUCTS ARE LABELED AS GLUTEN-FREE, AND THEY'LL WANT TO KNOW -- THEY'LL HAVE MAYBE MANUFACTURERS THAT ARE EXCLUSIVELY GLUTEN-FREE, BUT WHAT THEY MAY NOT KNOW IS THAT IN THE GRAINS AISLE, THE BARLEY HAS GLUTEN, THE QUINOA DOESN'T HAVE GLUTEN, BUT THIS PRODUCT HAS QUINOA BUT ALSO SOME BARLEY SO THAT IT'S NOT GLUTEN-FREE.

SO, THIS THEN ALLOWS THE RETAILER TO USE THIS INFORMATION TO MERCHANDISE AND PRODUCTIZE AND MAKE IT AVAILABLE TO THE CONSUMER.

SO, HOW DOES INCREASING THE CONSUMABILITY OF ALL THIS INFORMATION CHANGE HOW WE CONSUME FOOD?

WELL, YOU KNOW, ON THE ONE HAND, YOU SAY IT MAKES IT NEAT.

YOU CAN, YOU KNOW, DOWNLOAD AN APP.

WE ALL HAVE APPS WE DON'T USE.

IT HAS TO BE REALLY USABLE, AND I THINK IT GETS TO THE BIGGER QUESTION OF HOW CONSUMERS AND HOW SOCIETY TREATS FOOD.

WE'RE ALL AWARE WITH RECENT JOURNALISM AND EXPERTISE THAT WE NEED TO BE EATING BETTER AND, YOU KNOW, EAT FOOD, NOT TOO MUCH, MOSTLY PLANTS, THINGS LIKE THAT.

BUT IN THE END, UNLESS PEOPLE HAVE ACCESS TO THAT FOOD, BOTH THE INFORMATION AND THE ACTUAL ABILITY TO PURCHASE IT, THEN IT ALL COMES TO NOTHING.

I MEAN, WE HEAR ABOUT FOOD DESERTS, ESPECIALLY IN INNER CITIES WHERE THERE ARE NOT SUFFICIENT SUPERMARKETS OR FARMERS MARKETS, SO THE TRICK IS TO GET THIS BEYOND THE WHOLE FOODS AND TRADER JOE'S CROWD.

IT REALLY HAS TO REACH EVERYBODY FOR IT TO BE USEFUL.

ALL RIGHT, BRIAN HECHT, THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

THANK YOU.

IN AN EFFORT TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE, MANY FARMERS AROUND THE COUNTRY ARE DEVELOPING INNOVATIVE METHODS OF SUSTAINABLE GROWING SUCH AS AQUAPONICS.

THIS COMBINATION OF FISH AND SOILIST PLANT FARMING IS INCREASING IN POPULARITY AS A MORE ECO-FRIENDLY METHOD OF FOOD PRODUCTION.

WE VISIT ONE AQUAPONICS FACILITY IN FLORIDA USING AN INTRICATE SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING.

WE'RE AN AQUAPONIC FARM.

WE USE FISH TO GENERATE OUR FERTILIZER, AND THE FERTILIZER IS UPTAKEN BY THE PLANTS, AND THEN THE PLANTS CLEAN THE WATER FOR THE FISH, SO WE HAVE A COMPLETELY RE-CIRCULATING, ENVIRONMENTALLY SAVVY ECOSYSTEM.

SOUNDS SIMPLE ENOUGH, BUT IF YOU'VE EVER RUN A FARM OR HAD YOUR OWN BACKYARD GARDEN, YOU KNOW THERE'S MORE TO IT THAN THAT.

FOR EXAMPLE, DON'T PLANTS NEED SPECIAL FERTILIZERS?

WE CULTIVATE KOI AND TILAPIA.

ANY TYPE OF FRESHWATER FISH WILL WORK WITH AQUAPONICS BECAUSE WHAT WE'RE LOOKING FOR THEM TO DO IS PRETTY MUCH PRODUCE WASTE.

WE'RE INPUTTING FEED.

THEY'RE METABOLIZING THAT FEED AND GENERATING AMMONIA.

THAT AMMONIA THEN GETS CONVERTED OVER TO THE MOST USABLE FORM OF NITROGEN, WHICH IS A NITRATE, BY A BACTERIA.

IT OCCURS NATURALLY IN ANY TYPE OF FRESH WATER, SO, BASICALLY, WE'RE JUST MIMICKING WHAT'S HAPPENING IN A FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT AND USING THAT SAME SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO GROW FOOD.

WE ALL KNOW PLANTS ALSO NEED A LOT OF WATER TO BRING FERTILIZER AND NUTRIENTS TO THE PLANTS' ROOTS.

AT GREEN ACRE FARMS, PUMPS ARE USED TO MOVE THE WATER THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM.

WE TRY TO MINIMIZE HOW MUCH ELECTRICAL INPUT WE USE, SO WE USE PRIMARILY GRAVITY FLOW TO MOVE THE WATER THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM.

SO, AT THE HIGHEST POINT IS WHERE THE FISH ARE.

ALL THAT WATER'S FLOWING DOWNHILL, ESSENTIALLY, TO WHERE THE PLANTS ARE, AND FROM THAT LOWEST POINT, WE TAKE A PUMP, AND THEN WE SEND THAT WATER UP TO THE HIGHEST POINT, BUT IT'S INCREDIBLY EFFICIENT 'CAUSE WE CAN REUSE A REALLY SMALL PUMP.

ONLY PULLS ABOUT 145 WATTS TO MOVE OVER 12,000 GALLONS OF WATER.

WE HAVE SEVERAL DIFFERENT TYPES OF AQUAPONIC GROWING STYLES OR SYSTEMS.

PRIMARILY, WHAT YOU SEE IN A COMMERCIAL-TYPE SETTING IS WHAT WE CALL DEEP WATER CULTURE, WHICH IS ESSENTIALLY A FLOATING RAFT.

HAVE THE ROOTS SUSPENDED DOWN INTO THE AQUAPONIC NUTRIENT-RICH WATER BELOW.

GO MOSTLY LEAFY GREENS, LETTUCES IN THERE, BUT WHAT WE ALSO DO IS, WE GROW WITH WHAT'S CALLED MEDIA-BASED-STYLE GROWING OR FLOODING DRAIN.

TEND TO SEE THAT MORE IN A BACKYARD, A HOME-GARDENER APPLICATION.

OUR FRUIT-PRODUCING CROPS GO REALLY WELL.

LONGER-TERM CROPS GO VERY WELL IN THERE.

WE ALSO HAVE NFT, WHICH IS A NUTRIENT FILM TECHNIQUE.

IT'S VERY COMMON IN HYDROPONICS BUT EASILY ADAPTABLE OVER TO AQUAPONICS.

HAVE PRIMARILY HERBS THERE.

WITH THIS APPROACH TO FARMING, GINA AND HER CREW ARE ABLE TO PROVIDE A VARIETY OF PRODUCE FOR THE LOCAL DINNER TABLES YEAR-ROUND.

LEAFY GREENS DO EXCEPTIONALLY WELL.

ROOT-PRODUCTION CROPS DO PRETTY WELL, SO WE CAN GROW LETTUCES, COLLARDS, KALES, BROCCOLI, TOMATOES, CUCUMBERS, EGGPLANT, PEPPER, CERTAINLY HERBS, THINGS -- THAT LIKE THAT.

AND THEN WE GET THE ADDED BENEFIT OF, IT GROWS FASTER.

WE DON'T HAVE THAT COMPETITION THAT WE HAVE IN THE SOIL FOR FERTILIZER BECAUSE THERE'S SO MUCH OF IT ABUNDANT AND THERE'S NOT A COMPETITION FOR THE ROOTS TO HAVE TO REALLY PUT OUT A LOT OF ROOTS TO REACH OUT FOR THOSE NUTRIENTS OR FOR WATER.

IT'S ALL RIGHT THERE, SO THAT PLANT CAN INVEST ITS TIME AND ITS ENERGY GROWING UP, PRODUCING THE PART WE WANT INSTEAD OF GROWING DOWN.

IT MAY LOOK SIMPLE, BUT AQUAPONICS USES NATURAL TECHNIQUES IN JUST THE RIGHT BALANCE.

WE HAVE SEVERAL DIFFERENT LIVING ORGANISMS.

IT'S NOT JUST THE PLANTS.

THERE'S FISH.

THERE'S WORMS.

THERE'S BACTERIA THAT WE HAVE TO CONSIDER, MAKE SURE THAT WE HAVE A GOOD ENVIRONMENT FOR ALL OF THOSE LIVING ORGANISMS.

AND THE RESULTS ARE HIGH-QUALITY, ORGANIC PRODUCE THAT IS COMPLETELY SAFE AND NUTRIENT-RICH.

WE LIKE TO SAY WE HAVE THE BEST CERTIFIER OR REGULATORY AGENCY OUT THERE, AND THAT'S THOUSANDS OF FISH THAT IF I TRY TO INTRODUCE A CHEMICAL, I'D KILL, AND I'D EFFECTIVELY PUT MYSELF OUT OF BUSINESS.

WE GET ABSOLUTELY CLEAN FOOD.

TASTE IS PHENOMENAL.

WE THINK THAT PROBABLY BECAUSE THERE'S -- THERE'S NO FERTILIZERS.

THERE'S NO CHEMICALS.

THERE'S NOTHING TO ADULTERATE THAT TASTE.

AND IT'S INCREDIBLY FRESH, SO WE CAN HARVEST THAT PRODUCT OUT VERY FIRST THING IN THE MORNING, HAVE THAT TO OUR CLIENTS SAME DAY, AND THEIR CLIENTS ARE EATING THAT SALAD THAT EVENING.

ONE OF GINA'S CLIENTS IS CURTIS BEEBE, THE OWNER OF THE LOCAL PUBLIC HOUSE AND PROVISIONS IN SAN ANTONIO, FLORIDA.

WE ARE A PUBLIC HOUSE UNDER THE OLD STYLE IN THAT WE -- WE SERVE SOME GREAT LOCAL BREWS AND A COUPLE OF NICE WINES, AND ALL OF OUR FOOD IS PREPARED FROM LOCAL INGREDIENTS.

PART OF OUR CORE PHILOSOPHY IS THAT WE TRY TO BUY STUFF FROM LOCAL PRODUCERS, FOLKS THAT WE KNOW.

WE WANT TO BUY THE HIGHEST-QUALITY PRODUCT THAT WE CAN FIND.

WE WANT THE PRODUCTS TO BE SUSTAINABLE AND HEALTHY AND TASTY.

AND THE FOLKS AT GREEN ACRE AQUAPONICS KIND OF CHECK ALL THOSE BOXES FOR US.

GARDEN-FRESH ORGANIC SALADS ARE ONE OF THE MORE POPULAR ITEMS ON THE MENU, AND CURTIS NEVER WORRIES ABOUT RUNNING OUT.

IT'S ALL A SUPER-HIGH-QUALITY PRODUCT.

THEY CAN PRODUCE SALAD GREENS ALL YEAR-ROUND, WHICH IS A DIFFERENTIATOR FOR THEM BETWEEN THE DIRT FARMERS, AND IT'S JUST THE BEST SALAD GREENS THAT I'VE EVER HAD.

I CAN COUNT ON THEM TO PROVIDE A GREAT PRODUCT, AND I DON'T HAVE TO SECOND-GUESS THEM.

THEY SHARE OUR ETHOS IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABILITY AND HIGH-QUALITY FOOD.

SO, THE BEST SALADS IN SAN ANTONIO ARE ALL THANKS TO THESE LITTLE FISHIES AND THE CROPS THEY HELP PRODUCE.

YOU KNOW, BASICALLY, I THINK IT'S THE BEST WAY TO GROW FOOD.

IT'S SUSTAINABLE.

IT'S -- IT'S ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY.

IT USES LESS THAN 10% OF THE WATER THAT'S USED IN TRADITIONAL SOIL AGRICULTURE.

GINA NOW SHARES HER EXPERTISE WITH OTHERS AND SHOWS PEOPLE HOW TO START THEIR OWN AQUAPONICS FARM.

WHETHER IT'S, YOU KNOW, A ONE-DAY BACKYARD WORKSHOP WHERE I TEACH FOLKS HOW TO DO THIS ON A SMALL SETTING AND THEY CAN GROW FOOD FOR THEMSELVES AND THEIR FAMILY AND WE ALSO DO IT IN A LARGER SCALE WHERE WE TEACH PEOPLE IN FOUR DAYS HOW TO REPLICATE OUR BUSINESS MODEL, HOW TO SET UP A SMALL FARM BUSINESS, HOW TO BUILD THE SYSTEMS.

WE INCLUDE CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS, ESSENTIALLY EVERYTHING THEY NEED TO GET THIS FARM BUSINESS STARTED.

WE'RE JUST REALLY INTERESTED AND INVESTED IN MAKING SURE MORE PEOPLE LEARN ABOUT THIS TECHNOLOGY, UNDERSTAND IT, EMBRACE IT LIKE WE DO, AND MAKE A GREATER IMPACT ON OUR FOOD SYSTEM.

SOMETIMES IT SEEMS THAT DINOSAURS ARE JUST ABOUT EVERYWHERE -- IN FILMS, BOOKS, COMICS, AND EVEN THEME PARKS.

AND WITH THE HELP OF THE DINOSAUR WHISPERER AND HIS TEAM, WE TRY TO UNTANGLE DINO FACT FROM FICTION IN OUR CONTINUING FEATURE, 'THE DINOSAUR SHOW.'

HERE'S A LOOK.

HELLO, TEAM DINO.

I JUST SAW 'JURASSIC WORLD,' AND WHILE I'M NOT REALLY QUALIFIED TO SPEAK ON THE ACTING, THE DIALOGUE, OR THE SCREENPLAY, IT'D BE REMISS OF ME AS THE DINOSAUR WHISPERER TO COMMENT UPON THE SCIENTIFIC ACCURACY OF THE DINOSAURS PORTRAYED THEREIN.

SO, WITHOUT FURTHER ADO, HERE ARE THE TOP 10 DINOSAURS OF 'JURASSIC WORLD' IN A RELATIVE DESCENDING ORDER FROM LEAST SCIENTIFICALLY ACCURATE -- IN MY OPINION -- TO THE MOST SCIENTIFICALLY ACCURATE.

LET'S GO.

THE MOSASAUR IN 'JURASSIC WORLD' WAS INCREDIBLY IMPRESSIVE BUT MAYBE A LITTLE BIT IMPRESSIVE TO BE ACCURATE.

SO, BY ALL ACCOUNTS, IT WAS ABOUT TWO TO FOUR TIMES LARGER THAN THEY ACTUALLY WERE IN REAL LIFE, AND THERE'S ZERO EVIDENCE THEY'D BE ABLE TO JUMP OUT OF THE WATER TO THE HEIGHT THAT IT DID TO EAT THE GREAT WHITE SHARK, BUT ONE AWESOME DETAIL THEY DID INCLUDE ARE THE PALATAL TEETH ON THE ROOF OF ITS MOUTH SIMILAR TO A LOT OF REPTILE AND FISH SPECIES THAT WE SEE ALIVE TODAY.

PTEROSAURS -- I LOVE THE FACT THAT THERE ARE FLYING REPTILES IN 'JURASSIC WORLD,' BUT BOTH THE PTERANODON AND THE DIMORPHODON WERE DEFINITELY TOO BIG.

IN ADDITION, THESE GUYS HAD PRETTY THIN, ALMOST PAPER-THIN BONES, SO THE ABILITY TO HAVE THE STRENGTH TO LIFT UP SOMETHING THE SIZE OF A HUMAN -- NOT POSSIBLE.

VELOCIRAPTOR -- NOW, I UNDERSTAND THAT THEY NEEDED TO KEEP IT SIMILAR TO THE VELOCIRAPTORS FROM THE ORIGINAL MOVIES, BUT THERE ARE STILL A LOT OF PROBLEMS WITH THE VELOCIRAPTOR.

ONE, WAY TOO BIG.

LOOKS MORE LIKE A UTAHRAPTOR.

TWO, WE NOW KNOW THEY WERE COVERED IN FEATHERS -- STILL NO FEATHERS.

AND THEN IN THE MOVIE, ALSO MENTIONED THEIR ABILITY TO RUN, IF OUT IN THE OPEN, 40 TO 50 MILES PER HOUR -- WAY TOO FAST.

THEY WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN ABLE TO RUN THAT FAST.

T-REX, THE PERENNIAL FAVORITE, THE KING OF ALL OF THE DINOSAURS, SOME WOULD ARGUE AMERICA'S DINOSAUR.

THERE WEREN'T MUCH UPDATES IN 'JURASSIC WORLD.'

IT LOOKED VERY, VERY SIMILAR.

PROBLEMS THAT EXIST -- WE NOW KNOW THAT A LOT OF T-REX'S RELATIVES HAD AT LEAST SOME DOWNY TUFTS, SOME PROTO-FEATHERS AT THE VERY LEAST, SO WHY NOT ADD A LITTLE PROTO-FEATHERS TO T-REX?

ALSO, WAY TOO BIG STILL.

THEY DEFINITELY EXAGGERATED THE SIZE OF T-REX.

STEGOSAURUS -- DEFINITELY ONE OF MY FAVORITES.

THEY DEFINITELY MADE IT A LITTLE BIT BIGGER THIS MOVIE, BUT THE THING THAT THEY MISSED, AN OPPORTUNITY THEY DEFINITELY MISSED, IS TO SHOW THE PLATES IN A MORE ANATOMICALLY CORRECT POSITION.

SO, WE KNOW THAT THE PLATES WERE NOT FUSED TO THE SPINE.

THEY'RE ACTUALLY EMBEDDED IN THE SKIN KIND OF LIKE OSTEODERMS, WHICH MEANS THEY PROBABLY LAID FLAT ALONE THE SIDE OF ITS BODY EXCEPT FOR IN TIMES WHEN IT WAS EITHER DISPLAYING FOR MATING PURPOSES OR MAYBE TRYING TO SCARE AWAY A PREDATOR.

TWO FOR ONE -- THE APATOSAURUS AND THE TRICERATOPS.

I'M LUMPING THEM TOGETHER 'CAUSE THEY DID A PRETTY GOOD JOB IN DISPLAYING BOTH OF THEM.

THE HORNS LOOKED GREAT ON THE TRICERATOPS, BUT I'M STILL KIND OF DISAPPOINTED THAT ALL OF THESE GUYS ARE THIS GRAYISH, BROWNISH GREEN, KIND OF LIKE CROCODILIAN COLOR.

WHY NOT ADD A LITTLE BIT MORE COLOR?

YOU ADDED COLORS TO VELOCIRAPTORS.

WHY DO THESE GUYS GOT TO STILL LOOK DULL GRAY LIKE AN ELEPHANT?

GALLIMIMUS -- DEFINITELY ONE OF MY FAVORITES, PROBABLY MY FAVORITE SCENE FROM THE FIRST 'JURASSIC PARK.'

THIS MOVIE -- ABOUT THE RIGHT SIZE.

THEY LOOKED PRETTY GOOD.

BUT WHERE ARE THE FEATHERS?

ITS NAME LITERALLY MEANS 'CHICKEN MIMIC.'

CAN A BROTHER GET SOME FEATHERS UP IN THIS PIECE?

ANKYLOSAURUS DEFINITELY HAD A MORE PROMINENT ROLE IN 'JURASSIC WORLD' THAN PREVIOUS FILMS.

LOVED THEM.

I THOUGHT THEY LOOKED GREAT.

THE ARMOR LOOKED PHENOMENAL.

THOSE TWO BOWLING-BALL-SIZED TAIL CLUBS AT THE END -- AMAZING.

INDOMINUS REX -- NOW, I KNOW WHAT YOU'RE THINKING.

YOU'RE LIKE, 'WAIT A MINUTE.

WE'RE AT NUMBER TWO, AND I THOUGHT THESE WERE SUPPOSED TO BE GETTING REALISTIC AS WE GO,' BUT WHEN YOU, FROM THE GET-GO, CLAIM THAT YOU ARE MAKING A DINOSAUR OUT OF SCRATCH, THEN IT CAN BE AS REALISTIC OR UNREALISTIC AS YOU WANT, AND I LOVE THE FACT THAT THEY TOOK SOME CREATIVE LIBERTY, SOME ARTISTIC LICENSE, TO MAKE A REALLY MENACING, INTERESTING-LOOKING 'HYPOTHETICAL DINOSAUR.'

WHEN YOU TRY TO RE-CREATE AN EXACT REPLICA OF A REAL DINOSAUR -- FOR INSTANCE, A T-REX OR A VELOCIRAPTOR -- ALL IT TAKES IS GETTING ONE OR TWO LITTLE THINGS WRONG AND PEOPLE ARE GONNA BE ALL UP IN ARMS, BUT WHEN YOU SAY FROM THE GET-GO THAT THIS IS NOT A REAL THING, YOU CAN CREATE WHATEVER YOU WANT, AND THE FACT THAT THEY DID THAT AND ACTUALLY USED SOME ELEMENTS FROM REALISTIC-LOOKING DINOSAURS TO CREATE SOMETHING THAT, IN MY MIND, WASN'T SO FAR-FETCHED.

I MEAN, WE NOW KNOW A LOT OF DINOSAURS HAD THOSE NEURAL SPINES OR HAD THOSE WEIRD, LIKE, HAIR FILAMENTS COMING OUT OF THEIR ARMS.

IT LOOKED LIKE A COMBINATION BETWEEN AN ALLOSAUR, A T-REX, AND A VELOCIRAPTOR, AND IF YOU'RE TRYING TO MAKE A BLOCKBUSTER... INDOMINUS REX DID THE JOB.

AND NOW THE NUMBER-ONE MOST SCIENTIFICALLY SOUND, ACCURATELY DEPICTED DINOSAUR IN ALL OF 'JURASSIC WORLD'... THE CORUS.

[ CORUS CALLING ] BIRDS ARE DINOSAURS.

I'LL SEE YOU GUYS NEXT TIME.

TO SEE MORE ABOUT THESE PREHISTORIC CREATURES FROM 'THE DINOSAUR SHOW' TEAM, CHECK OUT THE LINK ON OUR WEBSITE.

AND THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS TIME.

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UNTIL NEXT TIME, I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

THANKS FOR WATCHING.

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