SciTech Now Episode 28

Episode twenty-eight of SciTech Now brings you the latest breakthroughs in science, technology and innovation. Find out if solar power can save us and how folks are fighting to close the gender gap in tech.

TRANSCRIPT

COMING UP, THE COMPUTER SCIENCE GENDER GAP

WE STILL HAVE A GENDE EXPECTATION THAT, YOU KNOW WOMEN ARE SUITED FOR CERTAIN ROLES AND NOT OTHERS

THE TECH FOOD REVOLUTION.

NOW THERE ARE THESE PLATFORMS YOU CAN GO ON AND BROWSE DIFFERENT RESTAURANTS, BARS, AND BAKERY PROJECTS AND BE ABLE TO FUND ONE

SOLAR ENERGIES POWER FO PEACE.

IT IS OUR INTENTION, AS WEL AS THE UNITED NATION'S AND OTHERS, TO LITERALLY ELECTRIFY AFRICA AND TO GIVE THOSE 600 MILLION PEOPLE ACCESS TO POWER.

AND DINO MANIA -- FACT VERSUS FICTION.

DINOSAURS WERE THE FIRS GROUP OF ANIMALS THAT COMPLETELY ABANDONED LIFE IN THE SEAS THEY WERE THE FIRST ANIMALS TO BE LIKE, 'YOU KNOW WHAT?

PEACE OUT, OCEAN I'M GONNA LIVE EXCLUSIVELY O LAND.'

[ HONK! HONK!

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING AN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

HELLO. I'M HARI SREENIVASAN WELCOME TO 'SciTech NOW,' OU WEEKLY PROGRAM BRINGING YOU TH LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION LET'S GET STARTED.

ONLY ABOUT 1/4 OF ALL COMPUTER SCIENTISTS IN THE U.S. ARE WOMEN, AND SEATTLE, WASHINGTON CONSIDERED TO BE A U.S. TECH HUB, HAS ONE OF THE WIDEST TEC GENDER GAPS IN THE COUNTRY IN THIS SEGMENT, WE TAKE A LOO AT EFFORTS TO LEVEL THE PLAYIN FIELD FOR WOMEN IN TECH IN SEATTLE.

HI.

HI.

HOW ARE YOU

KERI STOLLER IS ON A MISSIO TO CODE.

EVERY WEEK, SHE GETS TOGETHE WITH A GROUP OF WOMEN.

THEY ARE TAKING CLASSES THROUG GIRL DEVELOP IT, AN ORGANIZATION THAT TEACHES WOMEN COMPUTE PROGRAMMING.

I KEEP SAYING THAT EVEN WHE I'M FRUSTRATED WITH STUFF I' LEARNING WITH CODING, IT'S STILL SO MUCH BETTER THAN WHERE I WA JUST A YEAR AGO WHEN I WASN' REALLY SURE WHAT OPPORTUNITIES I WAS GONNA HAVE OR WHERE TO G NEXT

STOLLER IS WORKING TO JOIN GROWING NUMBER OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS, BUT SHE'LL FACE CHALLENGES EVERY YEAR, THE NATION'S LEADING TECH COMPANIES, INCLUDIN MICROSOFT AND AMAZON, AR REQUIRED TO RELEASE THEI DIVERSITY REPORTS.

THESE REPORTS DISCLOSE PARTICIPATION RATES AMONG ME AND WOMEN IN THE INDUSTRY.

WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE PARTICIPATION RATES AS A WHOLE WOMEN REPRESENT AROUND 30% O ALL THE JOBS IN THESE TECH COMPANIES.

BUT WHEN YOU DIG DEEPER AND LOOK AT JUST THE TECH-SPECIFIC JOBS LIKE CODING AND SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT, THESE NUMBERS DIP TO AN AVERAGE OF 16% PARTICIPATION RATE FOR WOMEN AND THE PARTICIPATION RATE FOR WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP POSITIONS IS JUST 22%

I THINK THAT IF THOSE NUMBERS CORRELATE, IT IS BECAUSE W STILL HAVE A GENDER EXPECTATIO THAT, YOU KNOW, WOMEN ARE SUITED FOR CERTAIN ROLES AND NO OTHERS

HEATHER WADE IS A TECHNICAL PRODUCT MANAGER AT TUNE, A MOBILE MARKETING TECH COMPANY IN SEATTLE.

HEATHER HAS WORKED AS A COMPUTER PROGRAMMER FOR OVER A DECADE COMPUTER PROGRAMMING HAS ONE O THE LOWEST PARTICIPATION RATES AMONG WOMEN IN THE TEC INDUSTRY

THERE'S ALSO A TENDENCY T PERCEIVE WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP A BEING BOSSY.

IN A PREVIOUS ROLE WHEN I WA FIRM WITH THE ENGINEERING TEAM ONE OF THE OTHER MANAGERS WOUL PULL ME ASIDE AND TELL ME THAT YOU KNOW, I WAS MANAGING LIKE FIELD MARSHAL AND THAT MAYBE I SHOULD, YOU KNOW, TONE IT DOWN AND BE A LITTLE GENTLER WITH PEOPLE BUT, REALLY, ALL I WAS TRYING TO DO WAS GET PEOPLE TO MEE DEADLINES.

I HAVE TO SAY THAT I FEEL THAT THINGS ARE BETTER NOW THAN THE WERE 8 OR 10 YEARS AGO BUT THAT DOESN'T MEAN THAT WE'RE THERE.

WE STILL HAVE PROGRESS WE CA MAKE

I CAN GET LINES OF CODE THA ARE TIGHTER, THAT HAVE FEWER ERRORS, MOSTLY FROM WOMEN, AND I THINK SOME OF IT IS, WE'VE HAD SOMETHING TO PROVE, RIGHT?

WE HAVE TO PROVE THAT WE CAN STILL DO THIS STUFF THE BEST

TRISH MILLINES DZIKO WAS TH FIRST SENIOR DIVERSITY ADMINISTRATOR AT MICROSOFT WHERE SHE WORKED FROM 1988 T '96 IN HIGH-TECH INDUSTRY.

DZIKO SAYS THAT IN ORDER T TRULY CLOSE THE GENDER GAP LEADERSHIP AND MANAGERS NEED T CHANGE A CULTURE THAT THEY HELPED CULTURE -- A CULTUR EVIDENT IN MICROSOFT C.E.O SATYA NADELLA'S RECENT COMMENT WHEN ASKED ABOUT WOMEN SEEKING RAISES

IT'S NOT REALLY ABOUT ASKIN FOR THE RAISE BUT KNOWING AN HAVING FAITH THAT THE SYSTEM WILL ACTUALLY GIVE YOU THE RIGHT RAISES AS YOU GO ALONG

REALLY, IT'S ABOUT GETTIN THEM TO SEE A DIFFERENT WAY SO THAT THEY CAN PUSH FROM THE TO AND LISTEN FROM THE BOTTOM RIGHT, LISTEN TO WHAT THE WOME AND PEOPLE OF COLOR ARE SAYING ABOUT WHAT IT'S LIKE TO WORK I THAT COMPANY AND THEN FIGURING OUT, WHAT ARE THE THINGS THA YOU CAN CHANGE TODAY

DZIKO MADE A CHANGE IN 1996 WHEN SHE LEFT MICROSOFT TO CREATE TAF, THE TECHNOLOGY ACCESS FOUNDATION.

TAF IS DEDICATED TO S.T.E.M.

EDUCATION FOR UNDER-SERVED POPULATIONS.

DZIKO SAYS GETTING GIRLS INTERESTED IN TECHNOLOGY AT AN EARLY AGE IS KEY TO HELPING THEM STAY WITH IT LATER IN LIFE

CAN YOU DO IT NICE! HIGH FIVE!

IF YOU LOOK AT STUDIES, I SHOWS THAT GIRLS ARE INTERESTE IN MATH AND SCIENCE ALL THE WA UP THROUGH LIKE 3rd OR 4th GRADE, SO CATCHING THAT AN SHOWING KIDS THAT, YOU KNOW, S.T.E.M. AND PROGRAMMING, YO CAN STILL DO THAT STUFF, RIGHT AND YOU CAN STILL BE INTERESTE IN THAT STUFF.

NOBODY'S GONNA TREAT YOU ANY DIFFERENTLY, AND, BY THE WAY IT'S GONNA GET YOU TO A MUCH BETTER CAREER IN THE LONG RUN.

OH, LET'S LOOK AT YOUR CODE FOR THIS, GUYS

THE NEWS HAS SPREAD, AN PARENTS WANT IN ON THE GOLDE CODING TICKET.

I GOT MY MONSTER PERSON T CHASE MY GOOD HERO

COMPUTER CODING FOR KIDS HA BECOME A BIG TREND IN JUST THE PAST COUPLE OF YEARS

I SEE YOU'VE GOT THE CODE HERE FOREVER IF I'M TOUCHING COLOR BLUE, WHICH IS THE COLOR OF YOUR PORTAL

AFTER-SCHOOL CODING CLASSES LIKE THESE HAVE SPRUNG UP IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AROUND TH REGION

LET'S SEE IF YOU CAN FIGURE OUT, HOW DOES -- HOW DO YOU GE THIS GUY TO NOTICE WHEN YOU'RE TOUCHING THE COLOR PURPLE.

ERIC FREDRICKSON TEACHE ELEMENTARY KIDS TO CODE IN HIS AFTER-SCHOOL CLASS CALLE CREATIVE CODING FOR KIDS

YOU CAN, LIKE, SHOUT, 'HEY, EVERYBODY, IT'S GAME OVER!' OR WHATEVER 18 MONTHS AGO, IT WAS ME AND ONE ASSISTANT, AND NOW WE HAVE 2 TEACHERS AND WE'RE IN 16 SCHOOLS.

THE DEMAND AND THE RESPONSE FROM THE PARENTS HAS BEEN SO, S POSITIVE

FREDRICKSON HAS BEEN A CODE HIMSELF SINCE THE '90s HE FOUNDED CREATIVE CODING FOR KIDS AFTER HIS DAUGHTER BECAME INTERESTED IN CODING AND WANTED TO TAKE A CLASS.

AT THIS AGE, THERE ISN'T LOT OF BULLYING.

AT THIS AGE, BOYS AND GIRL AREN'T.. OUT TO PROVE ANYTHING TO EAC OTHER QUITE AS MUCH.

IT'S A MUCH MORE COMFORTABLE AND SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT, WHICH IS WHY IT'S SO IMPORTANT TO START THEM YOUNG

THIS CODE RIGHT TO TELEPORT DOESN'T WORK UNLESS I PRESS 'W.'

I FEEL LIKE I JUST FIT IN WITH THE GUYS 'CAUSE I'M DOING SOMETHING WITH A WHOLE ROOM OF THEM BUT THEY'RE MAKING ME S WELCOME IN THAT, LIKE, I'M NOT JUST A GIRL DOING CODING THAT' DIFFERENT FROM EVERYONE ELSE THEY'RE MAKING ME FEEL LIKE I' PART OF A FAMILY

THE CULTURE SHIFT IN CODING IS NOT JUST LIMITED TO GRADE SCHOOL HEATHER WADE CREDITS THE YOUNG CO-FOUNDERS OF TUNE FOR CHANGE IN HER WORKPLACE

I THINK THAT, YOU KNOW, HAVING NEW BLOOD IN THE INDUSTRY IS WHAT'S GOING TO CHANGE TH GAME THEY DON'T HAVE A LOT OF THE PERCEPTIONS THAT, YOU KNOW PEOPLE 10 OR 20 YEARS OLDER THAN THEM WOULD HAVE.

SO WHEN THEY ADDRESS WOMEN I THE WORKPLACE, THEY'RE ADDRESSING THEM AS EQUALS, AND I THINK THAT THAT DOES DRIP DOWN THROUGH THE RANKS.

HOW I GET PEOPLE IN EVERY PART OF THE COMPANY, PARTICULARLY FOR THESE LARGE COMPANIES, TO REALLY MOVE TH BALL, TO REALLY MAKE THE CHANGE?

I THINK THAT SOME COMPANIES AR STARTING TO SEE THAT, BUT THEY ALSO HAVE TO BE WILLING TO MOV PEOPLE OR REMOVE PEOPLE WHO AR IN AUTHORITY WHO ARE NOT WILLING TO GO ALONG WITH THE PLAN.

TO LEARN MORE AND TO EXPLOR OTHER STORIES ABOUT WOMEN IN TECH, GO TO OUR WEBSITE.

A FOOD REVOLUTION IS UNDER WAY IN THE TECH SECTOR FROM SOURCING FOOD PRODUCTS TO RUNNING A FOO BUSINESS TO GOURMET MEAL APPS.

HUNDREDS OF TECH COMPANIES ARE WORKING TO FULFILL A FOODIE' EVERY DESIRE HERE TO TALK MORE ABOUT THIS I BRIAN HECHT, A SERIA ENTREPRENEUR FOR NEARLY 20 YEARS, A VETERAN OF MULTIPLE START-UPS, AND ADVISOR TO MANY DIGITAL COMPANIES, INCLUDING OUR OWN DIGITAL TEAM WELCOME BACK, BRIAN.

THANK YOU

SO, THE INTERNET OF FOOD, WHAT IS THIS

WE LIKE TO CALL IT FOOD TECH.

JUST FIVE YEARS AGO, THERE WER ONLY A FEW FOOD TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES THAT PEOPLE WERE FAMILIAR WITH -- OPEN TABLE, SEAMLESS WEB IN THE LAST TWO YEARS, THERE'S SORT OF THE SECOND GENERATION OF THESE FOOD TECHNOLOGY START-UPS.

$170 MILLION IN VENTURE CAPITA HAS FLOWED IN THIS SECTOR IN THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS

THAT'S A LOT OF MONEY WHAT DO THESE COMPANIES DO BESIDES DELIVER FOOD TO ME O MAKE A RESERVATION AT RESTAURANT THOSE, I UNDERSTAND.

RIGHT, WELL, THEY ADDRESS A VARIETY OF NEEDS RANGING FRO THE CONSUMER TO THE DINER AL THE WAY TO THE FARMER, TO TH RESTAURANT DONOR, AND, REALLY, BECAUSE OF THE TECHNOLOGY AN THE TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTUR THAT'S NOW AVAILABLE, ALONG WITH CONSUMER TASTES, THIS IS REALL BECOMING OF PERVASIVE INTEREST TO EVERYBODY

OKAY, SO, ONE OF TH CATEGORIES YOU MENTIONED WAS CROWD SOURCING

YEAH.

WHAT IS THAT?

SO, YOU'RE FAMILIAR WIT CROWD SOURCING LIKE KICKSTARTER, IF SOMEONE'S TRYING TO FUND A MOVIE OR PRODUCT OR SOMETHING, WELL, NO THAT'S BEING APPLIED T INVESTMENTS AND RESTAURANTS AN BARS AND BAKERIES.

THINK ABOUT, YOU WANTED TO START A RESTAURANT IN THE OLD DAYS ONE OF THE HARDEST THINGS TO D WAS TO GET FINANCING NOW THERE ARE THESE PLATFORMS.

THERE'S ONE CALLED EQUITY EATS IN WASHINGTON, D.C., WHERE I YOU'RE AN INVESTOR, AN INDIVIDUAL INVESTOR WHO' ACCREDITED AS AN INVESTOR, YOU CAN GO ON AND BROWSE DIFFERENT RESTAURANTS, BARS, AND BAKER PROJECTS AND BE ABLE TO FUND ONE.

I WENT ON, AND IT TURNS OUT THAT FOR AS LITTLE AS $2,500, YOU BECOME AN INVESTOR IN ONE OF THESE RESTAURANTS, AND THEY HAVE FUN LITTLE PRIZES.

LIKE, IF YOU INVEST, YOU -- YO GET A LATTE FREE EVERY DAY FOR A YEAR AS AN INCENTIVE T PARTICIPATE.

OKAY, 2,500 BUCKS IS A LO FOR A LATTE EVERY YEAR, BUT...

[ CHUCKLES ] SURE

...BUT, OBVIOUSLY, THERE' OTHER INVESTMENT RETURNS O THAT SO, AND WHAT ABOUT FOO DELIVERY IS THAT SPACE BEING REINVENTED BECAUSE THERE'S THOSE BI ESTABLISHED PLAYERS ALREADY?

YEAH, WELL, THERE'S A FEW DIFFERENT TRENDS THERE ONE OF THEM, I LIKE TO CAL COUTURE CUISINE, WHERE INSTEAD OF GOING BROAD LIKE SEAMLESS WHERE THEY AIM TO HAVE EVERY MENU FROM EVERY RESTAURANT EVERY MENU ITEM IN EVERY CITY, THESE ARE CHEF- OR KITCHEN-SPECIFIC DELIVER SERVICES THAT HAVE A VER CURATED NUMBER OF MENU ITEMS ONE EXAMPLE IS ONE I NEW YORK CITY HERE CALLED MAPL THAT'S HELMED BY DAVID CHANG O THE MOMOFUKU RESTAURANT MINI EMPIRE AND HE AIMS TO DELIVER MEALS FOR $15 IN UNDER 15 MINUTES, AND THESE ARE VERY HIGHLY CURATE BASED ON HIS CULINAR PHILOSOPHY ANOTHER ONE IS IN SAN FRANCISC CALLED SPRIG, AND THAT'S BY AN EXTRA FORMER EXECUTIVE CHEF FROM GOOGLE, WHICH, OF COURSE, IS VERY APPEALING THERE AND THEY LIKE TO CALL THEIRS FARM TO PHONE, SIMILAR DELIVERING MEALS IN UNDER 20 MINUTES.

OKAY, WHAT IF YOU'RE NOT IN ONE OF THESE BIG CITIES?

YEAH, THAT'S ANOTHER TREND IS THAT THIS IS NOW GOING NATIONAL.

THERE'S ANOTHER COMPANY CALLED ORDER UP THEY'RE BASED IN BALTIMORE, AN THEY'RE AIMING NOT ON THE SUPE BIG METRO MARKETS BUT ALL ACROSS THE COMPANY -- COUNTRY THEY HAVE -- THEY HAVE SERVICE IN GEORGIA, IN COLORADO, I KANSAS, IN IOWA, AND THE WAY THAT THEY DELIVER THIS SERVICE IS BY HAVING FRANCHISEES I THESE DIFFERENT CITIES, WHICH IS NOT A MODEL YOU TYPICALLY SE FOR TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES, AN THAT ALLOWS INDIVIDUAL OPERATORS IN EACH OF THESE LITTLER MARKETS TO REALLY KNOW THE FOOD CULTUR AND WHAT RESTAURANTS ARE POPULAR AND WHAT THE TASTES ARE IN THOSE AREAS, AND THEN THEY CAN REALL GET ON THE GROUND WITH THE OPERATIONS TO DELIVER EXCELLEN SERVICE IN A LOCAL MARKET.

SO, WE'VE TALKED ABOUT HO THEY CAN GET FUNDING USING THESE NEW APPS WE'VE TALKED ABOUT HOW THAT FOOD CAN ACTUALLY GET DELIVERED WELL, WHAT ABOUT THE FEEDBAC LOOP, RIGHT?

RIGHT NOW, THERE'S A LOT O PEOPLE THAT JUST USE YELP OR GrubHub OR SOMETHING ELSE TO SAY, 'FOOD WAS GREAT FOOD WASN'T AS GREAT.'

WELL, THERE'S A COMPANY CALLED ANTI THAT'S THE ANTI-YELP.

THEY CHARACTERIZE THEMSELVES IT GOES BY SERVY AND WHAT THEY DO IS, JUST LIKE THE IDEA OF A MYSTERY DINER OR A SECRET SHOPPER FROM THE OL DAYS, THEY SEND CONSUMERS IN THEY RATE THE RESTAURANTS BASE ON WHAT THE RESTAURANT COULD IMPROVE ON -- FOOD OR SERVICE.

THEY SELL THAT INFORMATION BAC TO THE RESTAURANT, AND THEN TH DINERS IN -- AS A REWARD, THEY EITHER GET A DISCOUNT OFF THEI CHECK OR THERE'S A MEAL THAT'S DONATED TO CHARITY ON THEI BEHALF

SO YOU GET PAID, BASICALLY, FOR REVIEWING FOOD

YOU GET PAID FOR REVIEWIN FOOD, AND YOU HELP THE RESTAURANTS IMPROVE.

ALL RIGHT, BRAIN HECHT, THANKS SO MUCH

THANK YOU

WORLDWIDE, 1.3 BILLION PEOPLE CONTINUE TO LIVE WITHOUT ACCES TO ELECTRICITY THIS IS EQUIVALENT TO 18% OF THE GLOBAL POPULATION, BUT MAN BELIEVE THAT SOLAR POWER MAY B THE KEY TO CHANGING THIS STATISTIC.

JOINING ME NOW IS TH ENVIRONMENTAL OFTEN CALLED CAPTAIN SUNSHINE YOSEF ABRAMOWITZ HE'S BOTH A HUMANITARIAN AND A GLOBAL PIONEER OF SOLAR POWER.

THANKS FOR JOINING US.

SO, HOW DO YOU THINK SOLAR POWER CAN SOLVE THIS PROBLEM CONSIDERING THAT, USUALLY, T HARNESS THE SUN'S ENERGY, YO HAVE TO HAVE SOME SORT OF ACCESS TO A SOLAR CELL, WHICH NOT EVERYBODY ON THE PLANET HAS?

SO, FIRST OF ALL, WE -- W CAN MAKE THAT HAPPEN OF THE 1.3 BILLION WITHOUT POWER, THERE'S 600 MILLION I AFRICA ALONE AND IT IS OUR INTENTION, AS WELL AS THE UNITED NATION'S AND OTHERS', TO LITERALLY ELECTRIF AFRICA AND TO GIVE THOSE 600 MILLION PEOPLE ACCESS TO POWER BOTH OFF GRID IN TERMS O WHAT WE CALL DISTRIBUTIVE BU ALSO ON GRID MY JOB IS TO GREEN THE GRIDS WE WANT TO -- WE WANT TO GET RID OF BURNING DIESEL.

ABOUT 9% OF THE WORLD' ELECTRICITY IS PRODUCED BY BURNING DIESEL, WHICH IS POLLUTING, EXPENSIVE AND WE HAVE TO BE ABLE TO BREA THAT HABIT WE WANT TO GREEN THE GRIDS AS -- AS WE'RE MAKING MORE POWER AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE.

IS IT EASIER IN A DEVELOPIN NATION THAN, SAY, TRYING T CONVINCE PEOPLE TO CHANGE THEI HABITS IN A DEVELOPED COUNTR LIKE THE UNITED STATES

AND IT'S A GOOD QUESTION.

THERE -- THERE'S DIFFERENT CHALLENGES IN DIFFERENT MARKETS, AND SO, IN AMERICA, YOU'RE U AGAINST REGULATORY UNCERTAINTY ON A NATIONAL LEVEL AND OFTEN ON A STATE LEVEL.

YOU'RE UP AGAINST BIG UTILITIES.

YOU SORT OF HAVE THE -- FOR SOME REASON, THERE'S STILL A CLIMAT QUESTION IN SOME SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION, WHICH IS ASTOUNDING.

ON THE OTHER HAND, YOU KNOW, ONCE YOU HAVE A DEAL AND YOU PLUG IT IN, THERE'S -- THERE'S A PERCEPTION OF VERY LOW RISK.

YOU GO TO A DEVELOPING COUNTRY AND THEY NEED THE POWER, AND THEY WOULD LOVE IT TO BE GREEN BUT THAT'S NOT THEIR MAI MOTIVATION THEIR MAIN MOTIVATION IS THA THEY WANT TO LIFT THEIR PEOPLE OUT OF POVERTY HOW CAN YOU HAVE HEALTHCAR WITHOUT POWER?

HOW CAN YOU HAVE EDUCATION WITHOUT POWER?

HOW CAN YOU HAVE JOBS AN INDUSTRY WITHOUT POWER SO, FOR THEM, THAT'S -- THAT'S THE LIFEBLOOD, AND WHEN PEOPLE COME ALONG, THEY USUALLY OFFER THESE DEVELOPING NATIONS DIESEL, AND WE WANT -- WE WANT TO PUT STOP TO THAT WE WANT TO SAY GREEN POWER NOW IT'S CHEAPER, IT'S FASTER, IT' SCALABLE, AND IT CAN B AVAILABLE WHETHER IT'S BIG GRIDS OR THERE'S NITRO GRIDS

NOT JUST THE FOSSIL FUE INDUSTRY BUT OTHERS WILL ASK 'WAIT A MINUTE LET'S LOOK AT THOSE THRE POINTS IS IT CHEAPER? IS IT FASTER?

IS IT SCALABLE

WE ARE IN A MAGIC MOMENT IN SCIENTIFIC AND IN THE HISTORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.

ON HALF THE PLANET TODAY, SOLA POWER IS CHEAPER THA CONVENTIONAL ENERGY, AND YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER, THE OI INDUSTRY HAS SUBSIDIES OF CLOS TO $600 BILLION.

IT'S NOT EVEN A -- IT'S NOT EVEN A LEVEL PLAYING FIELD TO BEGIN WITH IF YOU GOT RID OF THOS SUBSIDIES, MOST OF THE PLANET, SOLAR POWER IS CHEAP ENOUGH TO BE ABLE TO NOW COMPETE AND I MANY CASES TO UNDERCUT WHEN WE DO SOLAR FIELDS IN AFRICA, WE'RE KILLING DIESEL THE POOREST PEOPLE ON TH PLANET, WHEN THEY HAVE POWER, IF THEY HAVE DIESEL, THEY'RE PAYING 40, 50, SOMETIMES 60 U.S. CENT PER KILOWATT HOURS IT'S -- I MEAN, IT'S CRIMINAL.

WE CAN COME IN FOR A FRACTION -- A FRACTION OF THAT COST.

AND SO, IN AMERICA, WE HAVE VERY CHEAP ENERGY, AND SO IT' TRICKIER YOU NEED A -- YOU NEED A TAX CREDIT AND WHAT WE CALL TH AVOIDANCE COST BUT 2015 IS A GREAT PARITY THE MAGIC GRAIL IS IN OUR HANDS, AND NOW WE HAVE TO DEPLOY IT

HOW DOES THIS COMPARE TO, SAY, OTHER GREEN SOLUTIONS THA MIGHT WORK

WE'RE IN A RACE AGAINST TIME.

THE PARIS CLIMATE TALKS AR LATER THIS YEAR, AND WE -- EVERY COUNTRY NEEDS AN ENERGY MIX THAT FITS WHAT IS UNIQUE ABOUT THEI COUNTRY.

YOU LOOK AT A PLACE LIKE ETHIOPIA HYDRO IS PHENOMENAL THERE, BUT WHAT IF THERE'S GONNA BE A DROUGHT?

SO YOU WANT A CERTAIN -- YOU WANT -- YOU WANT TO BUILD ON HYDRO IN ETHIOPIA, AND THEN YO WANT A CERTAIN AMOUNT SOLAR, FOR EXAMPLE, BUT AGRICULTURAL WASTE, YOU CAN MAKE BIOFUELS OUT OF THAT AND WIND CERTAINLY, ALSO.

WIND TENDS TO BE MOR PREDICTABLE AT NIGHT, SO IT'S REALLY GOOD BALANCE, I THINK WITH SOLAR IN MOST -- MOST MARKETS.

SO, WE NEED AN ENERGY MI WITHOUT FOSSIL FUELS, AND THAT IS ALL POSSIBLE, AND IT' AFFORDABLE, AND IT'S SCALABL TODAY, AND THAT'S TH REVOLUTION

WHAT ABOUT THE AMOUNT OF LAND THAT'S REQUIRED TO MAKE THAT INVESTMENT IN THE SOLAR FIELD, RIGHT?

SO, ROOFTOPS IS VER IMPORTANT, AND THAT'S PROBABLY WHAT WE CALL THE DISTRIBUTIV MODEL, AND WE NEED REGULATION TO BE ABLE TO ENCOURAGE THAT IN PLACES WHERE IT DOESN'T EXIST.

BUT WE JUST BUILT THE FIRS COMMERCIAL SCALE SOLAR FIELD I EAST AFRICA IN RWANDA.

RWANDA ACTUALLY IS THE MOS DENSE LAND-PER-PERSON RATIO ON THE WHOLE CONTINENT, AND WE US 17 1/2 ACRES ON AN ORPHAN YOUT VILLAGE.

IT'S BEAUTIFUL, AND IT MAKES COMPLETE SENSE THERE'S ALWAYS GONNA BE LAND AVAILABLE FOR THIS, AND WHAT'S NICE IS THAT YOU DUAL-USE.

IF -- IF THE GOVERNMENT WANTS TO PLAN, YOU CAN PUT, YOU KNOW, SOME OF THE WINDMILLS ALSO AROUND THE SAME PLACE, AND THE YOU CAN KIND OF DOUBLE YOUR GRID LINES, BUT IT'S JUST A TINY -- YOU KNOW, LESS THAN 1% OF TH SAHARA WOULD POWER THE WHOLE WORLD IF YOU CAN TRANSMIT AN STORE IT, AND SO LAND IS NOT REALLY THE ISSUE WE NEED TO BE SENSITIVE ABOUT, PARTICULARLY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, GRAZING RIGHTS AN HISTORIC RIGHTS, AND THERE'S WAYS OF DOING THAT, AND WE COM AS HUMANITARIANS, WE COME AS ENVIRONMENTALISTS, AND WE UPHOLD THE HIGHEST STANDARDS OF THE WORLD BANK AND OTHERS TO DO IT MORALLY AND TO DO IT ETHICALLY AND TO DO IT IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY WAY

WHAT WAS IT -- 1% OF TH SAHARA COULD POWER THE PLANET?

I MEAN, BREAK THAT DOWN FOR ME

IT'S EVEN LESS.

IT'S EXTRAORDINARY THE AMOUNT OF SUNLIGHT THAT HITS THE EARTH, I BELIEVE, IN ONE HOUR CAN POWER THE WHOLE WORLD FOR A YEAR, AND WHAT WE NEED T DO IS CHANGE OUR INFRASTRUCTURE.

WE CAN POWER THE WHOLE PLANET ON RENEWABLES TODAY IF THERE WA POLITICAL WILL NOW, WE DID A TEST CASE IN ISRAEL FROM THE SOUTH, THE PORT CITY OF EILAT UP TO THE DEAD SEA, BY 2016, IT'S GONNA BE POWERED 100% BY THE SUN.. DURING THE DAY, WHICH IS PHENOMENAL, AND WE WANT TO B ABLE TO REPLICATE THAT IN ALL OF ISRAEL, AND THEN HOPEFULLY THE WORLD WILL BE ABLE TO LEARN FROM THIS EXPERIMENT THAT WE'RE DOING.

ALL RIGHT, YOSEF ABRAMOWITZ GOOD LUCK.

THANKS SO MUCH

THANK YOU SO MUCH

SOMETIMES, IT SEEMS THA DINOSAURS ARE JUST ABOUT EVERYWHERE -- IN FILMS, BOOKS, COMICS, AND EVEN THEME PARKS AND WITH THE HELP OF THE DINOSAUR WHISPERER AND HIS TEAM, WE TRY TO UNTANGLE DINO FACT FROM FICTION IN OUR CONTINUING FEATURE THE DINOSAUR SHOW.

HERE'S A LOOK.

HI. MY NAME IS DUSTIN AND I LOVE DINOSAURS

3, 2, 1

HI. I'M DUSTIN.

AND I'M ZACK.

Both: AND WE LOVE DINOSAURS

THAT WAS PRETTY GOOD.

THAT WORKED OUT PRETTY WELL.

HIGH FIVE.

WHAT IS A DINOSAUR?

THAT'S A REALLY GOO QUESTION, ZACK THAT IS A GREAT QUESTION ESPECIALLY FOR THE FIRST EPISODE OF A SHOW THAT'S ALL ABOUT DINOSAURS.

WE SHOULD PROBABLY ESTABLISH EXACTLY WHAT IS A DINOSAUR DINOSAURS WERE THE FIRST GROUP OF ANIMALS THAT COMPLETELY ABANDONED LIFE IN THE SEAS THEY WERE THE FIRST ANIMALS TO BE LIKE, 'YOU KNOW WHAT?

PEACE OUT, OCEAN I'M GONNA LIVE EXCLUSIVELY O LAND.'

[ HONK! HONK!

THE FIRST HABITUALLY TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS ON PLANET EARTH.

SO, IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHAT IS A DINOSAUR AND WHAT ISN'T A DINOSAUR IS KIND OF SIMILAR TO DETERMINING WHAT IS A CAT AN WHAT IS NOT A CAT.

TAXONOMISTS ARE SCIENTISTS THA CLASSIFY GROUPS OF ORGANISMS BASED ON SHARED CHARACTERISTICS, AND THAT'S KIND OF HOW WE KNOW WHEN WE SEE, LIKE, A PUMA OR A OCELOT, EVEN IF WE'VE NEVER SEEN IT BEFORE, WE CAN PRETTY MUC FIGURE OUT THAT'S A MEMBER O THE CAT FAMILY

THE FUR, THE FOUR LEGS, THE TAIL THE TEETH.

EARS.

THE EARS.

YEAH, YEAH.

HABITAT

SO, TAXONOMISTS AND PALEONTOLOGISTS CLASSIFY DINOSAURS AS DINOSAURS BASED O CERTAIN SHARED CHARACTERISTICS AND THERE'S A WHOLE SUITE OF THESE, THE MOST IMPORTANT OF WHICH ARE PROBABLY CERTAIN POSITIONING OF HOLES IN TH SKULL, VERTEBRAL MORPHOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY BEING BASICALLY JUS A FANCY SCIENCE WORD FOR SHAPE DINOSAURS WERE THE FIRST GROUP OF ANIMALS THAT PUT THEIR LEGS DIRECTLY UNDER THEIR BODY.

THEY HAVE A BALL-AND-SOCKE JOINT IN THEIR PELVIS THAT ALLOWS THEIR LEGS TO COM STRAIGHT DOWN UNDER THEIR BODY IF YOU ARE A CROCODILE OR AN ALLIGATOR OR MOST REPTILES, YO GOT YOUR ARMS SPLAYED OUT TO THE SIDE YOU'RE KIND OF INEFFICIENTLY LOCOMOTING WITH THE SIDE-TO-SIDE MOVEMENT THAT'S KIND O REMINISCENT OF WHEN THEY USED TO LIVE IN WATER AND THEY HAD FIN THAT NEEDED TO BE PUSHING WATE FROM SIDE TO SIDE.

SO, DINOSAURS WERE LIKE, 'PEAC OUT!

I'M GOING ON LAND.

IT'S NOT GONNA BE VERY EFFICIENT FOR ME TO MOVE IF I HAVE LEG SPLAYED TO THE SIDE, KIND OF DOING THIS WEIRD SIDE-TO-SID MOTION, SO -

SOUNDS EXHAUSTING

IT IS I'VE TRIED IT ONCE FOR AN ENTIRE DAY.

SO, PUT YOUR LEGS DIRECTLY UNDER YOUR BODY.

IT'S MUCH MORE EASY NOT ONLY JUST TO STAND HERE DOES IT TAKE A LOT OF ENERGY RIGHT NOW?

NO.

NO, YOU JUST GOT TO BALANCE AND THEN WHEN IT COMES TIME TO MOVE, WHEN IT COMES TIME T LOCOMOTE, YOU CAN DO IT MUCH MORE EFFICIENTLY AND MOVE A LO FASTER BUT THAT'S NOT THE ONLY THIN THAT MAKES A DINOSAUR DINOSAUR DO YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT ELS MAKES A DINOSAUR A DINOSAUR AN YOU NOT A DINOSAUR

YES

OF COURSE YOU DO, AND THA BRINGS US TO.. THE THING OF THE WEEK!

ACCORDING TO OUR FLOW CHART... [ VOCALIZES ARE YOU A DINOSAUR STEP ONE, ARE YOUR LEGS DIRECTLY UNDER YOUR BODY?

YES

YES, LEGS ARE DIRECTLY UNDE YOUR BODY.

ALL RIGHT, CHECK -- BIG CHECK.

STEP TWO, SCALES OR FEATHERS

NO.

I DON'T THINK SO EITHER NO SCALES, NO FEATHERS, NOT DINOSAUR

[ SIGHS ]

SORRY, MAN.

SO, ANYTHING THAT HAS ITS LEGS DIRECTLY UNDERNEATH ITS BODY..

YES

...AND SCALES OR FEATHERS..

YES

...IS A DINOSAUR?

EVERYTHING THAT I HAVE FOUND.

IF YOU CAN FIND SOMETHING THAT DISPROVES THIS FLOW CHART, PLEASE LET ME KNOW CAN YOU THINK OF AN ANIMAL THA JUST HAPPENS TO HAVE THEIR LEG DIRECTLY UNDER THEIR BODY BU DOES HAVE SCALES OR FEATHERS

BIRDS

THE BIRD SAYS..

BA-KAW!

BIRDS, ABSOLUTELY RIGHT, BUT THAT'S A WHOLE NOTHER TOPIC FO A WHOLE NOTHER EPISODE

AND THAT WRAP IT UP FOR THI TIME FOR MORE ON SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION, VISIT OU WEBSITE.

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UNTIL NEXT TIME, I'M HARI SREENIVASAN THANKS FOR WATCHING.

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