SciTech Now Episode 219

In this episode, we explore the usage and benefits of wearable technology; architect Jeffrey Pelletier takes us inside his Lego room and reveals some real world applications of the toy; a global initiative to create marine sanctuaries offers hope for oceans; and new drugs may be able to outsmart germs resistant to antibiotics.

TRANSCRIPT

COMING UP... WEARABLE TECH -- HERE TO STAY OR A PASSING FAD?

I DECIDED THAT DAY I WAS GONNA MAKE A CHANGE, AND IT LOOKED LIKE AN INTERESTING WAY TO KIND OF TURN WEIGHT LOSS INTO A GAME.

A LEGO LOVER'S DREAM COME TRUE.

PLAYING WITH BUILDING TOYS -- WHETHER IT'S LEGO OR LINCOLN LOGS OR WOODEN BLOCKS -- HAS REALLY GIVEN US THE SKILLS TO CRAFT A SPACE IN 3-D.

A MISSION IN MARINE CONSERVATION.

SUSTAINABLE FISHING -- I MEAN, IT'S A VISION, IT'S A DREAM, BUT I HAVE YET TO SEE REALITY IN ACTION.

AND FINALLY, THE SCIENTIFIC FIGHT AGAINST DRUG-RESISTANT DISEASES.

ORGANISMS CAN BECOME RESISTANT TO THE CHEMICAL ANTIBIOTIC, BUT WITH THESE LIVE ANTIBIOTICS, THEY CAN ACTUALLY CHANGE AND FIGURE OUT A NEW WAY TO ATTACK BAD ORGANISMS.

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY...

HELLO.

I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

WELCOME TO OUR WEEKLY PROGRAM BRINGING YOU THE LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION.

LET'S GET STARTED.

1 IN 5 AMERICANS CURRENTLY OWN A PIECE OF WEARABLE TECHNOLOGY.

FITBIT, THE MAKER OF THE POPULAR FITNESS BANDS, BECAME THE FIRST SUCH DEVICE TO GO PUBLIC ON THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE AFTER THE COMPANY'S SALES TRIPLED IN A YEAR.

SO, WHO'S BUYING THE TRENDY DEVICES, AND HOW ARE THEY BEING USED?

DR. GEETA NAYYAR GIVES US A LOOK.

♪ I'M WALKIN', YES, INDEED

WE'VE ALL HEARD THE ADVICE -- IN ORDER TO STAY FIT, THERE ARE CERTAIN STEPS YOU HAVE TO TAKE.

SOME WOULD SAY A CERTAIN OF STEPS.

MY DAILY TARGET IS 10,000 STEPS.

MY GOAL RIGHT NOW IS TO GET 100,000 STEPS.

2,298 STEPS SINCE I'VE WOKEN UP.

THE BENEFITS OF REGULAR EXERCISE ALONG WITH A BALANCED DIET ARE WELL-DOCUMENTED, BUT CAN WALKING REALLY IMPACT YOUR OVERALL HEATH?

AND WILL MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF DATA MOTIVATE YOU TO STICK WITH IT?

THESE ARE THE QUESTIONS DRIVING THE NEW CRAZE IN WEARABLE-FITNESS TECHNOLOGY.

THEY'RE CALLED ACTIVITY TRACKERS.

THE MAJOR GOAL OF A WEARABLE IS TO START A BEHAVIOR CHANGE -- NUMBER 1, TO FORM HABITS, NUMBER 2, SOCIALIZATION, AND THE LAST THING IS TO SHOW SOMEBODY PROGRESS.

DO YOU KNOW WHAT THIS IS?

I DO KNOW. THAT'S A FITBIT.

I'VE SEEN OTHER PEOPLE WEARING THEM AROUND.

DON'T KNOW WHAT THAT IS.

I'VE SEEN, IN THE SHOP, SOME OF THEM.

THOUGH FITBIT MAY CURRENTLY BE THE NAME TO BEAT IN WEARABLES, THE COMPETITION IS FIERCE.

FOR THE FITBIT SERIES, WE HAVE THE FLEX, WE HAVE THE CHARGE, THE CHARGE HEART-RATE MONITOR -- CHARGE HR -- AND THE SURGE -- WELL, THAT SOUNDS LIKE POWER RIGHT THERE.

AND THEN THERE'S ALSO THE Up, THE Up24, WHICH STARTED WITH THE SLEEP TRACKER, ALL TIME OF DAY, AND THE Up3, WHICH HAS THE HEART-RATE MONITOR.

FOR THE POLARS, IT'S THE M400 SERIES.

THAT'S THEIR TOP-OF-THE-LINE MODEL.

AND FOR THE GARMINS, IT'S FORERUNNER.

IT STARTED THIS WHOLE TREND.

SOME OF THEM LOOK LIKE A SIMPLE RUBBER WRISTBAND, BUT THE HIDDEN SENSORS TRACK ALL SORTS OF THINGS, LIKE ACTIVITY LEVEL, HEART RATE, AND SLEEP QUALITY.

BUT THE MOST COMMON USES...

WELL, THERE'S ACTUALLY TWO THAT MOST PEOPLE ARE INTERESTED IN -- THAT'S CALORIES AND STEPS.

IF I WANT TO LOSE WEIGHT, I CAN SEE WHAT I NEED TO DO AND HOW EASY IT COULD BE JUST TO MEET THOSE GOALS.

MOVEMENT IS KEY FOR JENNIFER FISHER, A SELF-PROCLAIMED FITBIT FANATIC.

I'VE ALWAYS KIND OF BEEN REALLY INTO HEALTH AND FITNESS, AND I'VE ALSO BEEN REALLY KIND OF INTO TECHNOLOGY, SO I WENT AND I BOUGHT MY FIRST FITBIT FLEX.

YOU KNOW, THAT WAS KIND OF ALL SHE WROTE.

I SPEND MOST OF MY DAY ON THE COMPUTER, YOU KNOW, DOING WORK, ANSWERING E-MAILS.

ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I'VE STARTED DOING, ACTUALLY, WITH MY TEAM IS WE ALL HAVE FITBITS, WE'LL ALL PUT OUR HEADSETS ON WITH OUR CELLPHONES, AND WE'LL GO FOR A WALKING MEETING.

I MEASURE, YOU KNOW, THE STEPS THAT I TAKE.

IT SHOWS MY RESTING HEART RATE RIGHT NOW.

MINE VIBRATES EVERY TWO HOURS, AS A REMINDER TO ME, YOU KNOW, TO GO MOVE AROUND A LITTLE BIT.

I'M AN ATTORNEY AND A SPIN-CLASS ADDICT.

FOR LARRY SILVERMAN, IT'S NOT ABOUT THE OF MOVEMENT, BUT MORE ABOUT THE MOVEMENT.

YOU KNOW, THIS IS MY UNFAIR ADVANTAGE IN SPIN CLASS.

RIGHT NOW IT'S AT 72 FOR THE HEART RATE, BUT THAT'LL GO UP.

NORMALLY, I'M LOOKING AT MY WATCH TO SEE WHAT MY CALORIE BURN IS -- 874 CALORIES, 176 MAX -- AND THAT'S BECOME VERY ADDICTIVE.

SO, IS IT ME, OR DOES IT SEEM LIKE YOU HAVE TO BE FIT BEFORE YOU EVEN BUY YOUR FITBIT?

THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO GO TO THE GYM EVERY DAY, AND THEY'RE ALWAYS UP FOR THE NEWEST DEVICES.

WHAT'S THE DEAL?

DO YOU REALLY NEED ONE OF THESE IF YOU HAVE THE BEACH BODY?

A META-ANALYSIS OF ALL THE STUDIES DONE TO LOOK AT WEIGHT LOSS WITH A FITNESS TRACKER SHOWED THAT YOU LOSE APPROXIMATELY 0.05 KILOGRAMS PER WEEK.

BUT FOR CHURCH PASTOR MATT MASHBURN, IT WAS JUST THE FIRST STEP ON HIS JOURNEY TO MAJOR WEIGHT LOSS.

I'VE LOST A NET OF 85 POUNDS.

HE'S USED HIS FITBIT RELIGIOUSLY FOR THE PAST FEW YEARS.

I WENT TO THE DOCTOR.

I GOT SOME BAD NEWS -- I HAD TYPE 2 DIABETES AND HIGH CHOLESTEROL.

I DECIDED THAT DAY I WAS GONNA MAKE A CHANGE, AND IT LOOKED LIKE AN INTERESTING WAY TO KIND OF TURN WEIGHT LOSS INTO A GAME, 'CAUSE THERE'S A SOCIAL ASPECT TO IT, WHERE YOU HAVE FRIENDS, AND IT'LL SOMETIMES CHEER YOU ON.

IT'LL SAY, 'HEY, YOU JUST PASSED TONY,' OR 'YOU JUST PASSED VINCE.'

I'VE HAD 17 MILLION STEPS SINCE I GOT IT, TOTAL, AND I'VE DONE A TOTAL OF 8,200 MILES SINCE I GOT IT.

WATER TRACKERS, SALT, SUGAR, FAT BURNED, AS WELL, AND CALORIES BURNED DURING PERIODS OF INTENSE EXERCISE.

I CAN TRACK MY WEIGHT, I CAN TRACK MY FOOD, CAN TRACK MY ACTIVITY, CAN TRACK MY SLEEP.

WHEN YOU HAVE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE AND YOU PUT ALL THIS DATA TOGETHER, YOU GET SOMETHING THAT WE CALL BIG DATA.

SO THE QUESTION IS, IS ANY OF THIS DATA MEANINGFUL?

NONE OF THESE APPS HAVE INDEPENDENT EVALUATIONS.

THEY ARE NOT REGULATED.

SO, WHAT'S TO BECOME OF THESE WEARABLE PERSONAL TRAINERS?

WILL THEY DIE THE SAME DEATH AS JAZZERCISE CLASSES OR THE OLD FOOD PYRAMID?

OR WILL THEY ACTUALLY HAVE SOME STAYING POWER?

I DEFINITELY THINK THERE IS A HUGE FUTURE IN WEARABLE TECHNOLOGY, BUT WE HAVE THE TECHNOLOGY, BUT WE HAVEN'T ACTUALLY STUDIED THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE WEARABLE DEVICES.

THE POSSIBILITIES OF HOW ALL THIS DATA IS USED ARE LIMITLESS, BUT ACCORDING TO ONE STUDY, 1/3 OF THOSE WHO BUY AN ACTIVITY TRACKER ABANDON IT WITHIN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS.

SO, GAME CHANGER OR PASSING FAD?

THE JURY'S STILL OUT.

THE LEGO ROOM IN SEATTLE-BASED ARCHITECT JEFFREY PELLETIER'S HOME IS A DREAM COME TRUE FOR LEGO LOVERS ACROSS THE GLOBE.

PELLETIER'S LOVE OF EVERYTHING LEGO DATES BACK TO WHEN HE WAS 2 YEARS OLD AND HAS INSPIRED HIS CAREER AS AN ARCHITECT THAT IS NOW SHAPING SEATTLE'S EVOLVING SKYLINE.

UP NEXT IS THE LEGO ENTHUSIAST HIMSELF.

REPORTER ANDREA VASQUEZ HAS THE INTERVIEW VIA GOOGLE HANGOUT.

JEFF, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

WHEN DID YOU KNOW YOU WANTED TO BE AN ARCHITECT?

I'VE KNOWN I WANTED TO BE AN ARCHITECT SINCE I WAS 2 YEARS OLD, ACTUALLY.

I USED TO BUILD LITTLE HOUSES OUT OF WOOD BLOCKS, AND I WOULD ASSEMBLE ROOMS FULL OF FURNITURE.

AT SOME POINT, MY PARENTS THOUGHT I SHOULD BE A FURNITURE MOVER, BUT I HAD HIGHER ASPIRATIONS AND DECIDED TO BECOME AN ARCHITECT INSTEAD.

SO, WHEN DID YOU START INTEGRATING LEGOS INTO YOUR PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECTURE PROJECTS?

[ LAUGHS ] WELL, THAT WAS PROBABLY WHEN I WAS AROUND 25 YEARS OLD.

MY LEGO WAS PUT AWAY IN A CLOSET FOR MANY YEARS, LIKE MANY ADULTS, AND AT SOME POINT, I HAD AN EMPTY ROOM IN MY HOUSE AND REALIZED, 'YOU KNOW, I'M AN ADULT.

I CAN HAVE A LEGO ROOM.'

WHY NOT?

AND IT KIND OF SLOWLY TOOK OVER MY LIFE.

AND NOW IT'S REALLY INTEGRATED WITH WHAT I DO AS AN ARCHITECT, AS WELL.

HOW MANY LEGOS DO YOU HAVE NOW?

YOU KNOW, I THOUGHT IT WAS AROUND 1/4 MILLION, BUT I'VE BEEN DOING SOME COUNTING SINCE.

I THINK IT'S PROBABLY AT LEAST DOUBLE THAT.

REALLY?

YEAH.

DO YOU HAVE ANY SENSE OF HOW MANY DOLLARS' WORTH OF LEGOS YOU HAVE?

I DON'T REALLY WANT TO KNOW.

[ BOTH LAUGH ] I TALKED TO MY INSURANCE COMPANY ABOUT IT, AND THEY SAY I'M COVERED.

THAT'S ALL I KNOW.

[ Laughing ] OKAY.

TYPICAL STREET VALUE FOR LEGO -- AS IF THERE CAN BE SUCH A THING AS STREET VALUE FOR LEGO -- IS AROUND 10 CENTS APIECE.

WHAT IS YOUR PROCESS WHEN YOU START TO BUILD WITH LEGOS?

WELL, YOU KNOW, I USED TO SKETCH.

I WOULD COME UP WITH AN IDEA, AND I'D SKETCH IT OUT.

BUT I'VE FOUND THAT I ACTUALLY AM FAR MORE CREATIVE IF I JUST SIMPLY PICK UP A FEW PIECES THAT I FIND INTERESTING OR UNIQUE AND START PLAYING WITH THEM.

AND AT SOME POINT, IT USUALLY EVOLVES INTO SOMETHING, WHETHER IT'S A BUILDING I'M GONNA BUILD OR A SPACESHIP OR SOMETHING FUN.

I KIND OF GO WITH IT.

SO YOU USE IT BOTH FOR WORK INSPIRATION BUT ALSO JUST PLAYTIME?

I'D SAY, PROBABLY, 75% RELEASE, RELAXING.

IT'S FUN TO KIND OF GET AWAY.

BUT, ACTUALLY, EVERY NOW AND THEN, IF I'M PLAYING WITH A CERTAIN PIECE, I'LL OFTEN GET INSPIRED TO THINK OF A DIFFERENT DESIGN FOR A HOUSE I'M WORKING ON OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

AND SO, IN THE AGE OF iPADS, HOW DO YOU THINK THAT LEGOS HAVE STILL SURVIVED?

YOU KNOW, THERE'S CERTAINLY A PLACE FOR TECHNOLOGY AND FOR MODELING THINGS IN THE COMPUTER.

I'VE FOUND, THOUGH -- AND I THINK A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE, TOO -- THAT PHYSICALLY PICKING UP SOMETHING AND BEING ABLE TO MOVE IT, SEE HOW IT MOVES AND SEE HOW IT ACTUALLY SHIFTS AND FEELS AND HOW THE SPATIAL RANGE WOULD WORK -- YOU CAN'T REPLACE THAT.

AND I'VE TALKED WITH A LOT OF OTHER ARCHITECTS WHO FEEL THE SAME WAY, THAT PLAYING WITH BUILDING TOYS -- WHETHER IT'S LEGO OR LINCOLN LOGS OR WOODEN BLOCKS -- HAS REALLY GIVEN US THE SKILLS TO CRAFT A SPACE IN 3-D.

AND WHAT KINDS OF PARALLELS IS THERE BETWEEN THAT AND YOUR ACTUAL WORK?

WELL, A GOOD CHUNK OF WHAT I DO IS DESIGN HOUSES OR RETAIL OR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS, AND IN DOING THAT, ON PAPER, I HAVE TO, SORT OF, CONVEY, YOU KNOW, I HAVE AN 8-FOOT-LONG WALL, THERE'S A DOOR HERE.

BUT I HAVE TO UNDERSTAND IN MY HEAD WHAT THAT LOOKS LIKE IN 3-D AS I'M DRAWING IT.

AND SO BEING ABLE TO HAVE THAT SKILL, WHERE I CAN CLOSE MY EYES AND ENVISION SOMETHING INSTANTLY IN ALL THE DIMENSIONS, FROM THE CEILING TO THE FLOOR AND THE WALLS TO THE WINDOWS, HOW IT WORKS, IS INCREDIBLY HELPFUL.

AND I THINK THAT SKILL WAS REALLY BUILT ON THE FOUNDATION OF PLAYING WITH LEGO.

DO YOU HAVE A FAVORITE PROJECT THAT YOU'VE DONE?

GOSH, FAVORITE PROJECT... YOU KNOW, I THINK THERE WAS A GREAT BOOKSTORE I DID CALLED ADA'S TECHNICAL CAFé -- SORRY, TECHNICAL BOOKS AND CAFé -- UP IN CAPITOL HILL IN SEATTLE, WHICH WAS THIS AMAZING LITTLE PROJECT OF A BOOKSTORE AND A CAFé AND A COWORKING SPACE IN THIS OLD HOUSE, RENEWED BUILDING, AND IT HAD A BIT OF EVERYTHING.

THAT'S ONE OF MY FAVORITE PROJECTS.

AND DO YOU HAVE A FAVORITE LEGO PROJECT ALSO?

OH, GOSH.

I BUILT THIS 7-FOOT-LONG SPACESHIP WITH A FULLY DETAILED INTERIOR FOR A CREW.

AND IT'S BEEN ONE OF THOSE THINGS THAT, AS A CHILD...

WOW.

...I'D ALWAYS WANTED TO BUILD A BIG SPACESHIP.

WHEN I WAS AN ADULT AND HAD ENOUGH LEGOS, AT SOME POINT, I REALIZED, 'I SHOULD BUILD THIS.'

AND IT TOOK ME NINE MONTHS, AND IT HAD A WORKING HANGAR BAY WITH SHUTTLECRAFT AND CREW QUARTERS FOR 100 PEOPLE, AND IT WAS PRETTY AMAZING.

OH, MY GOSH!

SO, IS THAT STILL STANDING?

SADLY, NO.

YOU KNOW, IT WAS SO BIG -- IT WAS 7 FEET LONG AND 3 FEET WIDE -- THAT AT SOME POINT, I DIDN'T KNOW WHERE TO PUT IT, AND SO I [BREATHES DEEPLY] TOOK IT APART ONE NIGHT WITH A BUNCH OF FRIENDS.

WE BUILT LITTLE SPACESHIPS, AND WE ATTACKED IT.

IT WAS KIND OF FUN.

[ LAUGHS ]

AND DO YOU HAVE ANY ADVICE OR RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PARENTS WHOSE KIDS ARE OBSESSED WITH LEGOS?

ABSOLUTELY -- BUY THEM MORE LEGO!

TRULY, I THINK IT'S ONE OF THE BEST TOYS OUT THERE.

I MEAN, I HAVE TWO SONS MYSELF, AND I SEE THEM PICK UP A TOY, AND WITHIN A WEEK, THEY'RE DONE WITH THE TOY AND THEY THROW IT AWAY AND THEY'RE ON TO THE NEXT THING.

THE THING THAT'S SO CAPTIVATING ABOUT LEGO IS THAT IT IS A SYSTEM AND THAT YOU CAN ALWAYS ADD ON TO IT.

I STILL, IN MY COLLECTION NOW, HAVE LEGO THAT I HAD WHEN I WAS 5 YEARS OLD, AND IT STILL WORKS, AND IT'S GREAT.

AND SO, IT IS, YOU KNOW, AN INVESTMENT IN PIECES, BUT IT ALLOWS CREATIVITY TO CHANGE, AND YOU CAN BUILD EVERYTHING, FROM ROBOTS TO SPACESHIPS TO BUILDINGS TO...ANYTHING.

I THINK IT ALLOWS CREATIVITY TO REALLY FLOURISH.

HOW DID YOU GO ABOUT ORGANIZING YOUR LEGO ROOM?

CAREFULLY.

IT TOOK A BUNCH OF TIME, AND IT'S ALWAYS EVOLVING.

IT DEPENDS ON WHAT PIECES I HAVE, AND SO SOMETIMES, IF I GET A REALLY GOOD DEAL ON A CERTAIN SET, THERE'S A LOT OF PIECES I'LL HAVE TO ADJUST AND MAYBE ADD A NEW BIN FOR SOMETHING ELSE.

BUT THAT'S BASICALLY HOW I BUILD.

SO I SORT BOTH BY PIECE SIZE AND ALSO BY COLOR, DEPENDING ON HOW I USE THAT PIECE.

IT'S REALLY PERSONAL.

OKAY.

AND ARE YOU STILL ADDING TO THE ROOM?

OH, I'M STILL ADDING TO THE ROOM ALL THE TIME.

YOU'LL HAVE TO LET US KNOW IF OR WHEN YOU HIT A MILLION.

[ LAUGHS ] I DEFINITELY WILL.

I DEFINITELY WILL.

I'M PROBABLY AFRAID TO COUNT TO THAT POINT, THOUGH, HONESTLY.

[ Laughing ] OKAY.

I DON'T BLAME YOU.

WELL, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR TAKING THE TIME TO TALK TO US.

NO PROBLEM.

THANKS SO MUCH FOR HAVING ME.

MAINTAINING THE HEALTH OF THE PLANET'S LARGEST BODY OF WATER MAY START WITH THINKING SMALL.

MISSION BLUE IS A GLOBAL INITIATIVE TO CREATE MARINE SANCTUARIES BY IDENTIFYING WHAT ARE CALLED HOPE SPOTS -- SPECIFIC AREAS THAT ARE VITAL TO THE HEALTH OF THE OCEAN.

TAKE A LOOK.

DR. SYLVIA EARLE HAS BEEN EXPLORING THE OCEANS FOR OVER 50 YEARS.

SHE'S SERVED IN MANY CAPACITIES, INCLUDING CHIEF SCIENTIST FOR THE NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION AND FOUNDER OF THE DEEP OCEAN EXPLORATION AND RESEARCH, INCORPORATED.

SOMETIMES, I TELL PEOPLE THAT I COME FROM A DIFFERENT PLANET.

[ LAUGHS ] AND MY FRIENDS SAY, 'WELL, WE KNEW THAT.'

[ LAUGHS ] 'JUST BASED ON YOU'RE SO STRANGE.'

BUT, REALLY, THE FACT IS THAT I DID COME FROM A PLANET THAT WAS SO DIFFERENT FROM WHAT THE PLANET IS LIKE TODAY THAT IT SEEMED AS IF IT MAY HAVE BEEN SOMEWHERE OTHER THAN EARTH.

SHE HAS BEEN A WITNESS TO CHANGES IN THE OCEANS NO ONE THOUGHT POSSIBLE FIVE DECADES AGO.

WHEN I BEGAN DIVING, PEOPLE THOUGHT THAT SHARKS WERE TO BE FEARED, AND THEY SAID, 'LOOK OUT FOR THE MAN-EATERS.'

AT FIRST, I TOOK THAT TO HEART.

THEN I REALIZED THAT I DON'T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT MAN-EATERS.

NOW WE HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT MAN EATING SHARKS.

WE HAVE TAKEN SO MANY BITES OUT OF SHARKS THAT THEIR NUMBERS ARE DOWN BY ON THE ORDER OF 90% OF MANY OF THE SPECIES THAT ONCE -- AGAIN, THE PLANET THAT I CAME FROM WAS BLESSED WITH LARGE NUMBERS OF SHARKS AND SWORDFISH AND TUNA, GROUPERS AND SNAPPERS AND COD AND HERRING AND OCTOPUS AND SQUIDS -- NOW GREATLY DEPLETED.

THE DRASTIC PRESSURES ON OUR OCEAN HAVE LED SYLVIA TO GO BEYOND RESEARCH TO ADVOCATE FOR RENEWAL AND SUSTAINABILITY.

THERE'S A GREAT SENSE OF URGENCY ABOUT GETTING PEOPLE TO UNDERSTAND WHY THE OCEAN MATTERS TO THEM, EVEN IF THEY'VE NEVER THE OCEAN, LET ALONE TOUCHED THE OCEAN, TO REALIZE THAT THE OCEAN TOUCHES EVERYONE EVERYWHERE EVERY DAY.

WITH EVERY BREATH YOU TAKE, YOU'RE CONNECTED TO THE OCEAN.

ONE AREA OF CONCERN IS SUSTAINABLE FISHING POLICIES.

WE TREAT FISH AS IF THEY ARE INFINITE IN THEIR CAPACITY TO RECOVER.

[ CHUCKLES ] SUSTAINABLE FISHING -- I MEAN, IT'S A VISION, IT'S A DREAM, BUT I HAVE YET TO SEE REALITY IN ACTION.

IT'S CHOICE THAT WE ARE BASING OUR POLICIES ON.

WE WANT THE CHOICE OF BEING ABLE TO EAT WILDLIFE THAT MAY TAKE 10 OR 30 OR 50 YEARS TO GROW THAT WE CAN CONSUME IN 10 OR 15 OR 50 MINUTES.

FOR OCEAN POPULATIONS TO REBOUND, CHANGES NEED TO BE MADE.

WE NEED TO RETHINK OUR LAWS, OUR POLICIES, AND OUR CHOICES, BASED ON WHAT WE NOW KNOW, BECAUSE IT MATTERS TO THE OCEAN.

IT MATTERS TO US, TO A PLANET THAT WORKS IN OUR FAVOR.

ONE OF HER LATEST EFFORTS IS THE CREATION OF MISSION BLUE.

THIS INITIATIVE IS DESIGNED TO INSPIRE PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HOPE SPOTS, PLACES THAT ARE VITAL TO THE HEALTH OF THE OCEANS.

ONE ACTION SOLUTION THAT ALL OF US CAN GET BEHIND IS THE CONCEPT OF REALLY EMBRACING SPECIAL PLACES IN THE OCEAN, JUST AS THE UNITED STATES BEGAN EMBRACING THE LAND AS NATIONAL PARKS.

HER FOCUS ON MARINE SANCTUARIES LANDED HER ON A PANEL DISCUSSION ABOUT PROTECTED AREAS AT THE BLUE OCEAN FILM FESTIVAL IN ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA.

WE HAVE A SYSTEM OF NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARIES.

IT BEGAN IN THE 1970s.

IT'S A GREAT IDEA, BUT IT NEEDS TO GROW.

GLOBALLY, ABOUT 3% OF THE OCEAN HAS SOME FORM OF PROTECTION -- CONSCIOUS ACTION TO HAVE POLICIES THAT WILL PROTECT PARTS OF THE OCEAN -- BUT A FRACTION OF 1% OF FULLY PROTECTED AREAS, WHERE EVEN THE FISH HAVE SAFE HAVENS.

WHAT A CONCEPT.

THE DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARIES, DAN BASTA, MODERATED THE DISCUSSION.

WE WANT TO CHANGE THE CONVERSATION IN THIS COUNTRY ON MARINE CONSERVATION.

WE DO NOT NEED A THOUSAND NEW SANCTUARIES.

ARE THERE SOME THAT WE THINK MAKE SENSE AND WILL BECOME PLACES?

FOR SURE.

BUT WHAT THE MOST IMPORTANT GOAL IS -- THAT COMMUNITIES HAVE THESE DISCUSSIONS.

HE OVERSEES THE MANAGEMENT OF 13 MARINE SANCTUARIES IN THE U.S.

IN ORDER TO INCREASE PROTECTED AREAS, HE'S PUSHING FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES TO NOMINATE BAYS, ESTUARIES, AND NEAR-SHORE AREAS TO BECOME SANCTUARIES.

IT IS ABOUT CITIZENS BEING INCENTIVIZED TO UNDERSTAND THEY COUNT, THEY MAKE A DIFFERENCE, THAT THEY CAN ACTUALLY DETERMINE WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR OCEAN IN THEIR IMMEDIATE VICINITY, HOW THEY CAN SUSTAIN THEIR LOCAL ECONOMY, HOW THEY CAN SUSTAIN THEIR CULTURE THROUGH THE PROCESS OF CREATING A SANCTUARY, AND HOW THAT HELPS THEM DETERMINE WHO THEY ARE.

CAN INDIVIDUAL COASTAL COMMUNITIES TRULY MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

CAN YOU FIND BIG SOLUTIONS BY THE SUM OF SMALL ANSWERS?

AND I BELIEVE THE ANSWER IS 'YES.'

IN FACT, I BELIEVE IT IS THE ONLY WAY.

IT HAS TO BE A PUBLIC WILL.

THE PUBLIC, AT THE VERY BASIC LEVEL, HAS TO FIND THEMSELVES CONNECTED, VALUING, AND SEEING THEMSELVES, AND YOU CAN'T SEE THAT WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT THE OCEAN.

BUT IF I TALK ABOUT YOUR BAY, YOUR PLACE, YOU GET IT.

THE BLUE OCEAN FILM FESTIVAL BROUGHT OCEANOGRAPHERS, FILMMAKERS, ENVIRONMENTALISTS, AND A COMMUNITY TOGETHER TO TEACH AND INSPIRE ONE ANOTHER.

THERE'S THIS UNIVERSE OF PEOPLE OUT THERE WHO DON'T KNOW WHAT THOSE GATHERED HERE KNOW, AND THERE'S A CHANCE TO MAGNIFY THE VIEW.

AND I THINK THAT'S WHAT HAPPENS AT THE BLUE OCEAN FILM FESTIVAL.

YOU GET PUMPED UP, INSPIRED ABOUT 'WHAT I'M DOING REALLY MATTERS.

IT'S IMPORTANT.'

AND, YOU KNOW, YOU GET YOUR BATTERIES RECHARGED.

SCIENTIST, EXPLORER, ADVOCATE -- SYLVIA EARLE'S 50-YEAR CAREER HAS OPENED HER EYES TO HOW WE, AS HUMANS, HAVE HAD AN UNFATHOMABLE EFFECT ON THE OCEANS.

I'M A WITNESS TO THE CHANGES THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN THE SPAN OF A HUMAN LIFETIME.

WELL, I'M NOT FINISHED YET, I HOPE.

YOU KNOW, JUST IN DECADES, NOT MILLENNIA, CONSEQUENCES HAVE CHANGED THAT ARE GEOLOGIC IN NATURE.

BUT AT THE SAME TIME, WE'VE LEARNED MORE THAN DURING ALL PRECEDING HISTORY.

ALTHOUGH WE HAVE BEGUN TO TAKE STEPS TO PROTECT MARINE MAMMALS, LIKE WHALES AND SEALS, DR. EARLE CALLS FOR BROADER EFFORTS.

THE FISH, THE LOBSTERS, THE SHRIMP, THE SQUID THAT ARE JUST TAKEN WITHOUT MERCY EVERYWHERE -- WE NEED TO VALUE THEM FOR REASONS BEYOND FOOD, BECAUSE WE DO HAVE CHOICES FOR FOOD.

WE DON'T HAVE CHOICES IN TERMS OF FINDING ANOTHER OCEAN THAT WORKS IN OUR FAVOR.

WE'VE GOT TO TAKE CARE OF OCEAN.

SINCE THE INTRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS IN THE MID-20th CENTURY, PENICILLIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED WONDER DRUGS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST GERMS, BUT WITH OVERUSE, OVER TIME, GERMS HAVE BEGUN TO OUTSMART THESE ONCE-DEPENDABLE ANTIBIOTICS.

NOW A RUTGERS UNIVERSITY MICROBIOLOGIST IS WORKING ON A NEW GENRE OF DRUGS TO ATTACK DISEASES WE KNOW ABOUT AND PERHAPS ONES WE REPORTER MICHAEL HILL HAS THE STORY.

IT'S DEFINITELY A GRIM SITUATION.

MICROBIOLOGIST DANIEL KADOURI ECHOES THE WARNINGS OF THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION.

THEY CALL IT AN URGENT, SERIOUS THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH -- DISEASES THAT RESIST ANTIBIOTICS BECAUSE GERMS EVOLVE AND ANTIBIOTICS HAVE BEEN OVERUSED AND ABUSED, EVEN ON THE FARM TO MAKE ANIMALS GROW FASTER.

WHAT WE DID IN THE LAST FEW YEARS IS WE PUSHED THE ENVELOPE.

THE SCIENTIST SAYS THAT'S LEFT TREATING PHYSICIANS WITH FEW OPTIONS.

THEY CAN TRY A COCKTAIL OF DRUGS OR RESORT TO SURGERY, INCLUDING AMPUTATION, BUT DR. KADOURI PLANS TO CHANGE THAT.

ONE OF THE THINGS WE'RE DOING IS GOING BACK TO NATURE, AND IN NATURE, THERE'S PREDATORS AND THERE'S PREYS, AND THERE'S BACTERIA THAT CAN ATTACK OTHER BACTERIA.

WITH A $7 MILLION U.S. DEFENSE DEPARTMENT GRANT, DR. KADOURI IS LEADING AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM TO EXAMINE HOW THE PREDATORY BACTERIA THEY GROW IN LABS CAN KILL THE MICROORGANISMS THAT CAUSE PLAGUE AND DISEASES, LIKE LUNG INFECTIONS, THAT ARE RESISTANT TO ANTIBIOTICS.

IT'S BACTERIA THAT WILL ATTACH TO OTHER BACTERIA.

SOME OF THEM WILL ACTUALLY PENETRATE THE OTHER BACTERIA AND GROW INSIDE, THEN BURST OUTSIDE, AND SOME OF THEM WILL ATTACH FROM THE OUTSIDE, THEN BASICALLY FEED ON THEM LIKE VAMPIRES.

IT'S A COMPLETELY NOVEL WAY TO THINK ABOUT ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT.

INFECTIOUS-DISEASE DOCTOR NANCY CONNELL IS PART OF THE TEAM AND SAYS THINK OF IT THIS WAY -- SOME PEOPLE USE YOGURT TO TREAT INFECTIONS BECAUSE IT HAS THE NATURAL BACTERIA ACIDOPHILUS.

ORGANISMS CAN BECOME RESISTANT TO THE CHEMICAL ANTIBIOTIC, AND THEN WE HAVE TO THROW IT AWAY.

WE CAN'T USE IT ANYMORE.

BUT WITH THESE LIVE ANTIBIOTICS, THEY CAN ACTUALLY CHANGE AND FIGURE OUT A NEW WAY TO ATTACK BAD ORGANISMS.

IT'S THE SECOND PHASE OF A STUDY THAT BEGAN MORE THAN A DECADE AGO.

THIS ONE, WITH THE HELP OF RESEARCHERS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, WALTER REED ARMY INSTITUTE OF RESEARCH, AND HEBREW UNIVERSITY IN JERUSALEM, WILL DETERMINE WHETHER THE LAB-GROWN PATHOGENS CAN KILL INFECTIONS AND DISEASES WITHOUT BEING TOXIC TO ANIMALS AND PATIENTS.

RIGHT NOW RESEARCHERS SAY THEY'RE NONTOXIC TO MICE.

DR. KADOURI SAYS THE CLOCK IS TICKING.

THIS IS SOMETHING THAT HUMANITY NEEDS.

IT'S SOMETHING WE NEED TO NOW INVEST AND HAVE A PIPELINE, BECAUSE NOW WE STILL HAVE SOME ANTIBIOTICS.

WE STILL CAN TREAT BACTERIA WITH SOME ANTIBIOTICS.

THE DAY WILL COME -- AND, ACTUALLY, IT'S GONNA PROBABLY BE VERY SOON -- THAT WE'LL NOT, SO WE WANT TO BE SURE THAT WE INVEST RESOURCES IN BUILDING UP OUR ARSENAL.

THE DOCTORS SAY DON'T EXPECT ANY NEW ANTIBIOTICS TOMORROW BASED ON THEIR RESEARCH, BUT THEY SAY, LONG-TERM, LOOK FOR THE KIND OF ANTIBIOTICS THAT WILL SAVE LIVES.

AND THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS TIME.

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UNTIL NEXT TIME, I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

THANKS FOR WATCHING.

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