SciTech Now Episode 213

Scientists attempt to answer the question, “How many licks does it take to get to the center of a lollipop?”; filmmaker and producer Emily Driscoll discusses the science behind the lollipop mystery; climate scientist Ken Caldeira talks climate intervention strategies; and one school in Tampa is using technology to facilitate classroom learning.

TRANSCRIPT

COMING UP, THE SCIENTIFIC LOLLIPOP EXPERIMENT.

THE SCIENTISTS ENDED UP STUDYING, UM, THE FLUID DYNAMICS OF DISSOLVING.

AND ONE OF THE BYPRODUCTS OF THAT STUDY WAS THEY SOLVED THIS EPIC CHILDHOOD MYSTERY.

VOLCANOES MIGHT HOLD THE KEY TO COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE.

WE KNOW FROM CLIMATE MODEL SIMULATIONS AND FROM VOLCANOES THAT A RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNT OF MATERIAL IN THE STRATOSPHERE CAN COOL THE EARTH DRAMATICALLY.

AND SO JUST IF CLIMATE CHANGE REALLY DOES PROVE CATASTROPHIC, IT WOULD BE GOOD TO UNDERSTAND WHAT OUR OPTIONS ARE.

AND FINALLY, THE CLASSROOM OF THE FUTURE.

WE'VE HAD TO DO VIDEO REPORTS OR DIFFERENT PRESENTATIONS USING, UH, THE SKILLS I'VE LEARNED HERE HAS ABSOLUTELY HELPED WITH DOING THOSE PRESENTATIONS USING THE CAMERAS, MICROPHONES.

IT'S HIGHER QUALITY THAN WHAT IT WOULD'VE BEEN WITHOUT THE SKILLS AND THE TECHNOLOGY HERE.

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

HELLO, I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

WELCOME TO OUR WEEKLY PROGRAM, BRINGING YOU THE LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION.

LET'S GET STARTED.

THAT EPIC CHILDHOOD QUESTION, 'HOW MANY LICKS DOES IT TAKES TO GET TO THE CENTER OF A LOLLIPOP?'

IT'S NOT JUST GENERATIONS OF CHILDREN WHO HAVE PONDERED THIS QUESTION.

MATHEMATICIANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY'S APPLIED MATHEMATICS LAB ARE SEARCHING FOR AN ANSWER BY STUDYING FLUID DYNAMICS TO DETERMINE JUST HOW LOLLIPOPS DISSOLVE.

FILMMAKER AND 'SCIENCE FRIDAY' PRODUCER EMILY DRISCOLL TAKES US INTO THE LAB FOR SOME ANSWERS.

♪♪

MR. OWL, HOW MANY LICKS DOES IT TAKE TO GET TO THE TOOTSIE ROLL CENTER OF A TOOTSIE POP?

A GOOD QUESTION.

SINCE CHILDHOOD, WE'VE ALL PONDERED THIS DEEPLY PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTION.

HOW MANY LICKS IT TAKE TO GET TO THE CENTER OF A TOOTSIE POP?

AND NOW EVEN MATHEMATICIANS HAVE SOUGHT TO SOLVE THIS CHILDHOOD MYSTERY.

THE ORIGINAL INSPIRATION FOR THE STUDY WAS NOT, UM, TO LOOK AT CANDY ITSELF.

BUT TO LOOK AT THE FLUID DYNAMICS OF DISSOLVING.

SO IT WAS A LITTLE MORE BORING, UH, THE MOTIVATION.

AND THEN LATER WE REALIZED, IT'D BE FUN TO THINK ABOUT WHAT IT MEANS TO EAT OR CONSUME CANDY.

IT TURNS OUT THAT STUDYING LOLLIPOPS DISSOLVING APPLIES TO RIVERS ERODING LANDSCAPES, AND PILLS DISSOLVING IN THE BODY.

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THESE VANISHING ACTS, LEIF RISTROPH, ALONG WITH JINZI 'MAC' HUANG, AND NICHOLAS MOORE DESIGNED EXPERIMENTS TO SEE HOW THE FLUID MOVED AROUND THE SUCKERS.

BUT THEY COULDN'T USE JUST ANY LOLLIPOPS.

IT HAD TO BE MATHEMATICALLY PERFECT CANDY.

IF YOU BUY A LOLLIPOP FROM THE STORE AND YOU LOOK AT IT, THERE'S ACTUALLY GIANT AIR BUBBLES ALL IN IT.

AND THIS, UH, A LITTLE TROUBLESOME IF YOU'RE LIKE AN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE MATHEMATICIAN, RIGHT?

'CAUSE YOU'RE TRYING TO LOOK AT THE CHANGE IN SHAPE, AND SUDDENLY, THIS BIG, UH, DIVOT APPEARS IN YOUR CANDY BECAUSE THERE'S AN AIR BUBBLE IN THERE.

SO WE TRIED THAT AND, UH, AFTER A LITTLE BIT OF FRUSTRATION, WE DECIDED WE'RE GONNA MAKE OUR OWN CANDY.

AND, UH, WE MAKE IT IN A WAY THAT ENSURES THERE'S NO BUBBLES INSIDE OF IT.

THE TEAM CREATED DIFFERENTLY SHAPED LOLLIPOPS SO THEY COULD WATCH HOW EACH DISAPPEARED.

AS MATHEMATICIANS, WE LIKE PERFECTLY SYMMETRIC AND BEAUTIFUL SHAPES.

EACH CANDY WAS SUSPENDED IN A 40-GALLON TANK THAT CREATES A UNIFORM FLOW OF WATER OVER THE SUGARY SUCKERS.

IT'S A 2-PART PROBLEM.

THAT MAKES IT FUN.

YOU GOT THE SOLID OBJECT AND THEN YOU HAVE THE FLUID.

AND THEY ACTUALLY INFLUENCE ONE ANOTHER.

THE SOLID OBJECT MAKES THE FLUID KIND OF BEND AROUND IT.

BUT THEN THE FLUID ACTUALLY CHANGES THE SHAPE OF THE SOLID OBJECT.

BUT THEY WANTED TO BE ABLE TO SEE HOW THE CLEAR WATER MOVES AROUND THE LOLLIPOPS.

A BIG PART OF OUR LAB IS TO MAKE THESE INVISIBLE FLOWS VISIBLE.

AND SO WE HAVE LOTS OF TRICKS TO DO THIS.

LIKE LASERS.

YOU CAN TAKE LITTLE GLASS PARTICLES, THROW IT INTO THE WATER, AND IT'LL SPREAD ALL THROUGHOUT.

THE LIGHT THE LASER SHOOTS CARRIES OFF THE PARTICLES.

SO WHAT YOU SEE, BASICALLY, IS A BUNCH OF LITTLE LINES THAT REPRESENT HOW THE FLUID IS FLOWING AROUND THE BODY.

THEN THEY WATCHED WHILE THE SHAPES ERODED INTO SUGAR SCULPTURES.

MICHELANGELO SAID ON EVERY PIECE OF ROCK, THERE'S SORT OF A SCULPTURE THAT'S INSIDE OF IT.

AND HIS JOB AS A SCULPTOR IS TO REVEAL THAT.

AND IN OUR STUDY, IT'S SORT OF LIKE INSIDE OF EACH PIECE OF CANDY IS THIS FINAL SHAPE.

AND THE FLUID BASICALLY REVEALS THAT.

WE FOUND AS -- YEAH, REGARDLESS OF THE BODY YOU START WITH, WHETHER IT'S A SPHERE, WHETHER IT'S A SQUARE, WHETHER IT'S A CYLINDER, IT EVENTUALLY MAKES THIS NICE, CURVED, POLISHED, BEAUTIFUL, ROUND FRONT THAT'S FACING INTO THE FLOW.

THAT'S THE COMMONALITY.

NOW THE DIRTY TRUTH IS THERE IS ALSO A BACKSIDE TO THE BODY.

AND WE ALMOST UNDERSTAND NOTHING ABOUT IT.

BUT WHAT ABOUT THAT EPIC QUESTION?

HOW MANY LICKS DOES IT TAKE TO GET TO THE TOOTSIE ROLL CENTER OF A TOOTSIE POP?

[ CRUNCHES ]

THE WORLD MAY NEVER KNOW.

ACTUALLY, WE KNOW.

YOU CAN VIEW LICKING A LOLLIPOP AS BASICALLY WASHING A FLUID, UH, OVER THE LOLLIPOP AT THAT SPEED.

USING A FAIRLY COMPLICATED FORMULA, THEY ARRIVED AT A GOLDEN NUMBER.

A THOUSAND LICKS TO GET TO THE CENTER OF A LOLLIPOP.

BUT THAT'S A FAIRLY ROUGH ESTIMATE SINCE THE APPLIED MATHEMATICS LAB CAN'T INCORPORATE YOUR TONGUE AND SALIVA MEASUREMENTS INTO THE EQUATION.

I WOULD BE VERY EXCITED TO HAVE PEOPLE ACTUALLY TEST THAT NUMBER.

SO WOULD WE.

TAKE THE 'SCIENCE FRIDAY' LOLLIPOP CHALLENGE TO FIND OUT HOW MANY LICKS IT TAKES FOR YOU.

ALL IT TAKES IS SOME TIME, A LOLLIPOP, AND A TONGUE.

JOINING ME NOW IS SCIENCE FILMMAKER EMILY DRISCOLL.

NO IDEA THAT FLUID DYNAMICS AND ALL THESE MATH TERMS AND ALL THIS LASER STUFF COULD STUDY SOMETHING AS SIMPLE AS A LOLLIPOP.

EXACTLY, BUT IT DIDN'T START OUT AS A LOLLIPOP, ACTUALLY.

FIRST, UM, THEY WERE STUDYING EROSION AND FLUID DYNAMICS OF DISSOLVING.

AND ORIGINALLY, THEY STARTED, LIKE, HMM, MAYBE WE CAN TRY SALT.

UM, BUT HARD SALT WAS ENDED UP DAMAGING THEIR EQUIPMENT.

AND THEN THEY TRIED ICE.

AND THEN THEY FOUND THAT SUGAR WORKED REALLY WELL.

IT TOOK LONG ENOUGH SO THEY COULD ACTUALLY SEE THE MOVEMENT OF THE FLUID OVER THE CANDY.

THE PILL DISSOLVING STUFF.

I MEAN, THAT ACTUALLY IMPACTS PEOPLE ON A DAILY BASIS.

LOTS OF COMPANIES ARE THINKING ABOUT EXACTLY HOW AND WHEN THE MEDICINE IS RELEASED INTO YOUR BLOODSTREAM, RIGHT?

EXACTLY. THE SCIENTISTS ENDED UP STUDYING, UM, THE FLUID DYNAMICS OF DISSOLVING.

AND ONE OF THE BYPRODUCTS OF THAT STUDY WAS THEY SOLVED THIS EPIC CHILDHOOD MYSTERY.

BUT AT THE SAME TIME, THEY LEARNED THESE IMPORTANT MATHEMATICAL LAWS, UM, THAT APPLIED TO THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY.

LIKE SOME PILLS NEED TO DISSOLVE MORE SLOWLY THAN OTHERS LIKE GELCAPS OR PILLS OR TABLETS.

UM, SO THAT CAN BE HELPFUL FOR THAT APPLICATION.

UM, BUT ALSO IT'S IMPORTANT IN STUDYING EROSION AND HOW LANDSCAPES ERODE.

YOU HAD A 'SCIENCE FRIDAY' LOLLIPOP CHALLENGE.

WHAT WAS THAT?

EXACTLY, UH, SO IN ADDITION TO THE VIDEO, 'SCIENCE FRIDAY' LAUNCHED THIS LOLLIPOP CHALLENGE AND INVITED VIEWERS AND LISTENERS TO TRY IT THEMSELVES, TO SEE -- TO CHECK THE SCIENTISTS' RESULTS.

UM, 'CAUSE THE SCIENTISTS FOUND IT TAKES A THOUSAND LICKS TO GET TO THE CENTER OF A LOLLIPOP.

UM, SO OVER 1,000 PEOPLE ENTERED.

AND MOST PEOPLE FOUND IT WAS BETWEEN ZERO AND 500.

UM, SOME WERE OVER 2,000.

AND I TRIED IT MYSELF AND I GOT 720.

WOW, OKAY, ALL RIGHT.

YEAH.

SO WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THIS KIND OF RESEARCH?

NOW THAT THEY'VE DONE THE LOLLIPOP EXPERIMENT, UH, WHAT ELSE ARE THEY GONNA DO?

AND WHAT DO THEY LEARN FROM THIS?

AND HOW DO THEY BUILD ON IT?

UM, THEY LEARNED THAT, UH, NO MATTER WHAT THE ORIGINAL SHAPE OF THE CANDY IS, SO WHETHER IT'S A CYLINDER, WHETHER IT'S A SPHERE, UM, THE PART THAT'S FACING INTO THE FLOW, UM, GETTING THE BRUNT OF THE FLOW ALWAYS DISSOLVES INTO THE SAME ROUNDED SHAPE.

SO THEY DON'T KNOW WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BACK OF IT.

UM, AND THIS IS JUST IMPORTANT FOR UNDERSTANDING, UM, HOW -- HOW SOLIDS DISSOLVE.

SO FOR THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY OR FOR, UM, HOW LANDSCAPES ERODE.

EMILY DRISCOLL FROM 'SCIENCE FRIDAY.'

THANKS SO MUCH.

THANK YOU.

♪♪

WE KNOW MOST PEOPLE ARE TRYING TO EAT BETTER, BUT IT'S NOT THE EASIEST THING IN THE WORLD EVEN IN THE BEST FOOD CITY.

PEOPLE EAT BETTER WHEN THEY'RE AROUND OTHER PEOPLE WHO EAT BETTER.

BUT THAT'S NOT ALWAYS POSSIBLE IN THEIR LIFE.

SO THE FOODSTAND APP IS -- IS SORT OF THE DIGITAL WAY OF MAKING THAT POSSIBLE.

SO THINK OF US AS THE GOOD FOOD COMMUNITY THAT LIVES IN YOUR POCKET.

AND WE GIVE YOU THESE PEOPLE POWERED NUDGES TO EAT BETTER EVERY DAY.

SO THE WAY IT WORKS IS THERE'S A FEED, UH, MUCH LIKE MANY APPS WE'VE SEEN WHERE PEOPLE ARE SHARING WHAT THEY'RE EATING AND WHAT THEIR FOOD FINDS AND WHERE THEY'RE EATING.

AND YOU CAN LIKE AND FOLLOW AND COMMENT AND ALL THOSE THINGS WE'RE USED TO THERE.

BUT WE ALSO COMPILE THE BEST POSTS INTO OUR EXPLORER SECTION WHERE YOU COULD SEE, UH, YOU KNOW, VARIOUS HIGHLIGHTS THROUGHOUT THAT.

AND WE ALSO SHOW YOU WHAT'S NEARBY YOU USING YOUR LOCATION SO YOU CAN FIND GOOD FOOD TO EAT IN YOUR AREA.

SO THERE'S A COUPLE THINGS THAT ARE DIFFERENT ABOUT FOODSTAND.

SO FOODSTAND IS THE ONLY COMMUNITY PLATFORM THAT'S WITH THE COMMUNITY PLATFORM FOR INTENTION OR FOR BETTER EATING.

MOST PLATFORMS THAT ARE OUT THERE ARE JUST, LIKE, SLIMY BURGERS AND, LIKE, DESSERT AND MACAROONS AND MACAROONS FOREVER AND EVER.

BUT THAT'S NOT ACTUALLY HELPING SOMEBODY MAKE BETTER FOOD CHOICES.

SO THIS COMMUNITY'S COME TOGETHER BECAUSE THEY'RE HERE TO EITHER SHARE WHAT THEY KNOW OR LEARN FROM THE OTHER PEOPLE THAT ARE THERE.

SO COMPARED TO EVERYTHING ELSE THAT'S OUT THERE OR THE INTENTION-DRIVEN COMMUNITY.

ANOTHER DIFFERENCE IS THAT YOU CAN FOLLOW THINGS YOU'RE INTERESTED IN AND NOT JUST PEOPLE.

SO YOU COULD FOLLOW EGGS IF YOU LIKE EGGS.

OR VEGAN IF YOU'RE A VEGAN.

AND WE WILL TAILOR THE CONTENT THAT YOU SEE TO YOUR INTERESTS.

WE'RE ALSO LOOKING ACROSS ALL KINDS OF FOOD TRANSACTION.

SO IT'S NOT JUST RECIPES.

IT'S NOT JUST WHAT'S THE NEAREST RESTAURANT NEAR YOU.

YOU'RE LEARNING BOTH OF THOSE THINGS FROM A COMMUNITY WHO ACTUALLY CARES ABOUT THIS STUFF.

♪♪

VOLCANOES MIGHT HOLD THE KEY TO COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE.

AS THE WORLD GRAPPLES WITH THE CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE, SCIENTISTS ARE THINKING UP NEW WAYS TO LOWER THE EARTH'S TEMPERATURE AND TO DO SO QUICKLY.

UP NEXT IS KEN CALDEIRA A CLIMATE SCIENTIST FROM STANFORD UNIVERSITY EXPLORING HOW TO REFLECT SOLAR HEAT BACK INTO SPACE.

REPORTER ANDREA VASQUEZ HAS THE INTERVIEW VIA GOOGLE HANGOUT.

KEN CALDEIRA, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

I APPRECIATE YOU BEING WITH US.

THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

UM, AND YOUR RESEARCH CENTERS AROUND HOW HUMANS CAN INTERVENE IN CLIMATE CHANGE.

UM, GEOENGINEERING OR THE ALBEDO EFFECT.

CAN YOU EXPLAIN WHAT THAT IS?

THE EARTH IS HEATED BY THE SUN'S WARMING RAYS.

AND SO, ONE IDEA FOR A WAY TO KEEP THE EARTH COOL IS TO REFLECT SOME OF THAT INCOMING SUNLIGHT BACK TO SPACE.

OKAY, AND THERE'S SOME THINGS THAT DO THAT NATURALLY, RIGHT?

LIKE SNOW.

IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE THAT NATURALLY DOES THAT PROCESS?

SURE, SNOW AND ICE OBVIOUSLY REFLECT LOTS OF SUNLIGHT BACK UP BUT ALSO VOLCANOES.

WHEN THERE ARE BIG VOLCANOES, THEY -- IT PUTS TINY PARTICLES INTO THE STRATOSPHERE WHICH IS THE UPPER PART OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

AND THESE TINY LITTLE PARTICLES SCATTER SUNLIGHT BACK TO SPACE AND CAUSE THE PLANET TO COOL.

HOW CAN WE USE THIS IN OUR ADVANTAGE?

WELL, I'M NOT SUGGESTING ACTUALLY DOING IT.

I'M SUGGESTING THAT IT'S WORTH INVESTIGATING.

UH, IT SEEMS THAT, UH, IT WOULD BE POSSIBLE FOR A VERY SMALL FLEET OF AIRPLANES TO HAVE THE SAME EFFECT ON THE CLIMATE SYSTEM THAT BIG VOLCANOES HAVE.

AND THERE WAS A BIG VOLCANO IN 1991 AND HAD THAT AMOUNT OF MATERIAL THAT THAT VOLCANO PUT INTO THE STRATOSPHERE.

HAD WE MAINTAINED THAT ARTIFICIALLY, THAT WOULD'VE BEEN ENOUGH TO OFFSET ALL OF THE GLOBAL WARMING ANTICIPATED THIS CENTURY.

AND IT COULD BE DONE WITH A SMALL FLEET OF AIRPLANES.

AND -- AND SO WE KNOW FROM CLIMATE MODEL SIMULATIONS AND FROM VOLCANOES THAT A RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNT OF MATERIAL IN THE STRATOSPHERE CAN COOL THE EARTH DRAMATICALLY.

AND SO JUST -- IF CLIMATE CHANGE REALLY DOES PROVE CATASTROPHIC, IT WOULD BE GOOD TO UNDERSTAND WHAT OUR OPTIONS ARE.

SO THAT -- THOSE PARTICLES AND THINGS ARE BASICALLY REFLECTING LIGHT BACK UP SO THAT IT'S NOT PENETRATING THROUGH AND WARMING OUR ATMOSPHERE.

EARTH IS HEATED BY SUNLIGHT COMING DOWN AND WARMING THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.

AND THEN THAT ENERGY ESCAPES BACK TO SPACE THROUGH, IT'S CALLED THE LONG WAVE OR HEAT RADIATION.

AND GREENHOUSES GASSES PREVENT THIS HEAT FROM ESCAPING THE PLANET.

AND SO, THE BEST WAY TO COOL THE EARTH IS BY KEEPING THESE GREENHOUSE GASSES OUT OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

BUT ANOTHER WAY IS TO TURN DOWN THE KNOB THAT'S WARMING THE EARTH WHICH IS THE AMOUNT OF SUNLIGHT ABSORBED BY THE EARTH.

SO WHAT ARE YOUR CONCERNS WITH ALBEDO MODIFICATION?

WELL, THE MOST OBVIOUS THING IS WE HAVE ONE BIG COMPLICATED PLANET AND, YOU KNOW, PAST, UH, EFFORTS TO INTERFERE WITH THE BEHAVIOR OF BIG COMPLICATED SYSTEMS HAVE OFTEN PROVED DISASTROUS.

AND SO, YOU KNOW, GETTING BIT BY AN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN IS REALLY WHAT I'M FRIGHTENED ABOUT.

BUT THE CLIMATE MODEL SIMULATION SUGGESTS THAT THIS THESE KIND OF APPROACHES WOULD WORK QUITE WELL.

THAT CLIMATE MODEL SIMULATIONS INDICATE THAT SOMETHING LIKE 90% OF THE CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND OVER HALF THE CHANGES IN, UH, IN PRECIPITATION CAUSED BY GREENHOUSE GASSES TO BE OFFSET THROUGH THESE APPROACHES.

I GUESS THE OTHER CONCERN IS THAT IF PEOPLE FEEL THERE'S SOME TECHNO FIX THEY MIGHT...PUT LESS EFFORT INTO TRANSFORMING OUR ENERGY SYSTEM AND THEREBY MAKE THE PROBLEM WORSE IN SOME WAY.

RIGHT, WE'RE SEEING TECHNOLOGY'S ALLOWING US THESE SORT OF SHORT-TERM FIXES LIKE WITH DESALINATION TO HELP OUT THE DROUGHT IN CALIFORNIA, BUT MAYBE IT'S NOT ADDRESSING THE REAL CAUSE OF THE ISSUE?

YES, THE REAL MAIN CAUSE OF THE CLIMATE PROBLEM IS CARBON DIOXIDE COMING FROM BURNING COAL, OIL, AND GAS.

AND SO, IT'S REALLY OUR SMOKESTACKS AND TAILPIPES THAT ARE CAUSING THE PROBLEM.

AND THESE KIND OF CHEAP TECHNO FIXES, THEY MIGHT PROVIDE SOME SYMPTOMATIC RELIEF, BUT THEY DON'T CURE THE UNDERLYING DISEASE.

AND -- AND THAT'S OFTEN SEEN AS A REASON NOT TO EXPLORE THESE THINGS, BUT IF THINGS GET BAD ENOUGH, YOU KNOW, IF A CANCER PATIENT'S IN PAIN, THEY WOULD LIKE THAT SYMPTOMATIC RELIEF EVEN IF THE UNDERLYING DISEASE ISN'T SOLVED.

AND SO, THE -- THESE KIND OF GEOENGINEERING APPROACHES ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR TRANSFORMING OUR ENERGY SYSTEM INTO ONE THAT DOESN'T USE THE SKY AS A WASTE DUMP.

BUT IF THINGS GET REALLY BAD, THIS IS THE ONLY SORTS OF THINGS THAT A POLITICIAN CAN DO WHERE THEY WOULD SEE A CLIMATE EFFECT WITHIN THEIR TERM IN OFFICE OR WITHIN, UH, THEIR POLITICAL CAREER.

ENERGY SYSTEM TRANSITIONS TAKE A HALF CENTURY OR LONGER TO REALLY HAVE A SUBSTANTIAL EFFECT ON THE CLIMATE SYSTEM.

VOLCANOES HAVE A BIG IMPACT ON THE CLIMATE SYSTEM IN THE NEXT YEAR AND SO IF -- IF THINGS GET BAD AND PEOPLE DEMAND THAT POLITICIANS DO SOMETHING THAT HAS AN EFFECT NOW, REALLY THESE KINDS OF GEOENGINEERING, UNFORTUNATELY, THOSE ARE THE ONLY THINGS THAT POLITICIANS WILL BE ABLE TO DO.

WOW, WELL, WE'LL SEE IF IT COMES TO THAT.

BUT THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

YEAH, LET'S HOPE IT DOESN'T COME TO THAT.

YEAH.

ALL RIGHT, THANK YOU.

THANK YOU.

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT GEOENGINEERING, CHECK OUT THE 'SCI-TECH NOW' BLOG ON TUMBLR AND ON OUR WEB SITE.

♪♪

TECH DEVICES CAN SOMETIMES ACT AS A DISTRACTION FOR STUDENTS, BUT NOT AT TAMPA PREP.

WHEN YOU STEP INTO THIS FLORIDA SCHOOL, IT FEELS LIKE YOU'RE STEPPING INTO THE FUTURE.

THE ENTIRE FACILITY HAS BEEN OUTFITTED WITH THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY -- MOVABLE DESKS, iPads, AND DYNAMIC CLASSROOMS.

TAKE A LOOK.

THIS CLASSROOM AT TAMPA PREP NEAR DOWNTOWN TAMPA WENT THROUGH A TRANSFORMATION LAST SUMMER AT THE MIDDLE SCHOOL DIVISION HERE.

THEIR CLASSROOMS WERE REMODELED AND OUTFITTED WITH THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY.

WELL, LOOK, I NOTICE IT SAYS ZERO, 2, AND THEN I SEE IT SAYS 2, 2. WHY IS THAT?

WE WANT EVERY KID TO HAVE THE SAME VISUAL EXPERIENCE.

SO WE WANNA HAVE MULTIPLE DISPLAYS IN THE CLASSROOM.

SO THAT YOU CAN BE AT THIS END OF THE CLASSROOM OR THIS END OR OVER HERE AND SEE THE SAME CONTENT.

THEN THE AUDITORY ASPECT.

WELL, ALL THE TEACHERS HAVE LAPEL MICS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY MADE TO DO VOICE AMPLIFICATION AND NOT ONLY JUST AMPLIFICATION, BUT CLARITY.

THERE IS NO SOLUTION FOR IT.

AND THEN THE COLLABORATIVE ASPECT WITH THE STEEL-CASE FURNITURE, VERY MOBILE.

WE CAN ON-THE-FLY CHANGE THE WAY THE CLASSROOM'S LAID OUT.

AND THEN THE GLASS.

THIS USED TO ALL BE A WALL HERE AND NOW WE'VE PUT AS MUCH GLASS AS POSSIBLE IN TO KIND OF OPEN UP THE SPACE AND BRING IN AS MUCH NATURAL LIGHT AS POSSIBLE.

EVERY STUDENT ALSO HAS AN iPad THAT IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE LEARNING PROCESS.

THEN WE HAD TO REALIZE THAT WE WANTED TO HAVE A WAY TO GET CONTENT FROM THE TEACHER TO THE STUDENT BACKWARDS AND FORWARDS ELECTRONICALLY.

SO WE HAD A LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THAT WE USE CALLED HAIKU.

ALTHOUGH THERE WERE MONTHS OF PLANNING, THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW CLASSROOMS CAME QUICKLY.

THE TRAINING WAS DIFFICULT BECAUSE THE CONSTRUCTION WAS DONE IN THE SUMMER.

SO WHEN THEY CAME BACK, THEY WERE IN THIS ENVIRONMENT IMMEDIATELY.

I DIDN'T KNOW IF I'D BE ABLE TO LEARN EVERYTHING IN TIME.

BUT IT WAS AMAZINGLY EASY.

PAT EMBRY NOW TEACHES ALGEBRA WITH MANY NEW HIGH TECH TOOLS AT HER DISPOSAL.

NOW I HAVE SCREENS ON THREE SIDES OF THE ROOM.

I CAN HAVE THREE DIFFERENT THINGS ON THE SCREEN.

I CAN WALK AROUND, LOOK AT THE STUDENTS' WORK.

WE CAN TALK ABOUT SOMETHING THAT'S ON ONE OF THE THREE SCREENS.

THEY CAN MOVE -- TURN THEIR DESKS TO LOOK AT WHATEVER SCREEN WE'RE TALKING ABOUT.

THERE IS NO BACK OF THE ROOM.

I'VE THROWN OUT THE SEATING CHART.

THE STUDENTS COME IN AND SIT WHEREVER THEY WOULD LIKE.

AND THE SEATING ARRANGEMENT CHANGES THROUGHOUT THE CLASS DEPENDING ON WHAT THE ACTIVITY IS WE'RE DOING.

BUT THE REALLY POWERFUL PART IS WHEN THE STUDENTS PROJECT THEIR WORK ON THE BOARD.

WHO ELSE IS READY?

JOSHUA, THERE YOU ARE.

LET'S PUT YOURS UP.

WE DON'T CARE IF THE PROBLEM IS ALWAYS RIGHT OR WRONG.

WE'RE JUST LOOKING TO -- TO SEE HOW THE PROBLEMS WORK AND WE LEARN FROM OUR MISTAKE.

HERE IN LAURA PEREIRA'S 8th GRADE SPANISH CLASS, THE MULTIPLE DISPLAY ENVIRONMENT HAS OPENED MANY OPTIONS FOR HER AS A TEACHER.

[ SPEAKING SPANISH ] I COULD HAVE INFORMATION THAT'S USEFUL TO THEM UP ON ONE OR TWO SCREENS.

POINT OUT TO THEM, YOU KNOW, IF YOU'RE FEELING REALLY COMFORTABLE WITH THE MATERIAL, LOOK AT THIS BOARD.

IF YOU'RE STILL STRUGGLING WITH THE VOCAB, I HAVE THE VOCAB ON DISPLAY IN THE BACK.

OR IF THE VERBS ARE STILL CHALLENGING YOU, THEY'RE ON THE OTHER SCREENS.

SO, YOU KNOW, REALLY ALLOWING KIDS TO REALIZE THAT THERE'S MULTIPLE SOURCES AND POINTS OF INFORMATION.

CLASSROOM PARTICIPATION FOR STUDENTS NOW INCLUDES BEING ABLE TO DISPLAY THEIR PRESENTATION RIGHT FROM THEIR iPad.

OR THEY CAN WALK UP TO A SCREEN TO DEMO THEIR WORK.

SINCE BOTH WALLS ARE ALL COMPLETELY WRITABLE, THAT DOES LEAVE A LOT MORE SPACE FOR THEM TO WRITE AND THEY LOVE TO WRITE ON THE BOARD.

SOMETHING THAT I'VE REALIZED, LIKE, OH, I CAN HAVE EIGHT STUDENTS GO UP AND WRITE AT THE SAME TIME ON THE BOARD AND THAT'S NOT A PROBLEM.

AND THE MOVABLE DESK HAS MADE THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT EVEN MORE POWERFUL.

THEY LOVE TO BE NEXT TO EACH OTHER.

AND THEY LIKE TO GET AS CLOSE AS THEY CAN TO THE DISPLAYS.

WE WANT TO BE SEAMLESS WHERE THIS IS NOT TECHNOLOGY, THIS IS JUST LEARNING.

THIS IS THE WAY YOU TEACH.

THIS IS -- IT'S ANOTHER TOOL.

STUDENTS HERE ALSO USE THE TECHNOLOGY TO CREATE REPORTS.

FOR DIFFERENT CLASSES, WE'VE HAD TO DO VIDEO REPORTS OR DIFFERENT PRESENTATIONS USING, UH, THE SKILLS I'VE LEARNED HERE HAS ABSOLUTELY HELPED WITH DOING THOSE PRESENTATIONS USING THE CAMERAS, MICROPHONES.

IT'S HIGHER QUALITY THAN WHAT IT WOULD'VE BEEN WITHOUT THE SKILLS AND THE TECHNOLOGY HERE.

IN THE COMPUTER TECH LAB, JULIAN COHN IS COLLABORATING WITH OTHER STUDENTS TO CREATE AN APP.

THIS IS A FLOW CHART APP WE DEVELOPED.

SO WHEN YOU CLICK THE BUTTON, IT SETS THE IMAGE TO THE FIRST OPEN SLOT.

THEN WE'LL PUT IN TEST.

AND IT GOES TO THE THING.

AND REED FOREHAND IS PART OF A TEAM OF STUDENTS WHO CREATED AUTO ADJUSTING HEADPHONES.

OUR GOAL IS TO HAVE HEADPHONES THAT WHEN YOU CHANGE, AMBIENT ENVIRONMENTAL SOUND LEVELS THAT THEY WOULD ADJUST THE NOISE VOLUME WITHOUT YOU HAVING TO MANUALLY TOUCH YOUR PHONE.

ONCE WE DESIGNED THE CIRCUIT, WE PUT IT INTO THE C.N.C.

MACHINE.

AND CREATED OUR FIRST PROTOTYPE CIRCUIT.

AND ONCE THAT WORKED, WE DECIDED TO CONDENSE THE CIRCUIT TO MAKE IT MUCH SMALLER AND MUCH MORE MANAGEABLE IN LINE WITH THE HEADPHONES.

WE 3D PRINTED AN ENCLOSURE FOR IT AND ACTUALLY PUT IT IN THE HEADPHONES.

THE ENCLOSURE WAS DESIGNED WITH A 3D CAD SOFTWARE.

WE STARTED WITH JUST A SIMPLE CUBE.

AND WE SLOWLY EXTRUDED AWAY THE INSIDE OF THE CUBE TO MAKE THE CIRCUIT THAT WE DESIGNED FIT INSIDE.

AND THE COOL THING ABOUT AUTODESK IS THAT YOU CAN MANIPULATE IMAGES TO VIEW THEM FROM EVERY ANGLE.

SO WE CAN CHECK THE BOX TO MAKE SURE THAT IT FIT EVERY DESIGN SPECIFICATION WE NEEDED.

THIS IS JAMES RILEY'S ADVANCED PRE-CALCULUS CLASS IN THE SENIOR HIGH DIVISION OF THE SCHOOL.

THE ONLINE MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE THE SCHOOL USES FOR ALL STUDENTS ALLOWS HIM TO RUN A FLIP CLASS.

THE FLIP CLASSROOM IS WHEN YOU DO YOUR HOMEWORK IN CLASS AND YOU TAKE YOUR LECTURES AT HOME.

HE MAKES THESE PODCASTS WHICH IS HIS VOICE TALKING AND EXPLAINING THE LESSON WHILE HE WRITES ON AN iPad.

AND AS WE WATCH THESE VIDEOS, WE'RE LEARNING THE LESSON.

THOSE ORDER OF PAIRS WILL ESTABLISH THE COSINE CURVE.

SINCE THE STUDENTS WATCH THE LECTURES AT HOME, DURING CLASS, THEY'RE ABLE TO WORK DIRECTLY WITH THEIR TEACHER.

AND AS SOON AS YOU HIT THAT PROBLEM THAT YOU HAVE A QUESTION ON, YOU CAN GO STRAIGHT TO THE TEACHER RIGHT THEN.

HE CAN TELL YOU WHAT IS HAPPENING AND ANSWER YOUR QUESTION AND THEN YOU CAN GO AND FINISH THE PROBLEM.

ANOTHER GOOD PART IS THAT WE WORK IN GROUPS.

SO THAT I DON'T EVEN HAVE TO ASK HIM ALL THE TIME.

I CAN ASK SOMEONE ELSE IN THE CLASSROOM TO HELP ME OUT.

FLIP CLASSROOMS, ACTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS, COMPUTER AND ENGINEERING DESIGN CLASSES.

FOR TAMPA PREP, IT'S A WAY OF LIFE.

THERE'S A LOT OF OPPONENTS TO INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY.

THAT IT TAKES AWAY FROM FACE TIME AND WE NEED LESS DIGITAL AND MORE HUMAN INTERACTION.

AND I THINK YOU SAW TODAY THAT THERE IS MORE HUMAN INTERACTION THAN EVER.

IT'S FUN TO COME IN EVERY DAY AND REALLY THINK OF NEW WAYS TO USE THIS TECHNOLOGY.

IT'S ADDED SOMETHING TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM THAT I NEVER THOUGHT WAS POSSIBLE.

WE'RE LOOKING FOR ENGAGING INTERACTIVE ENVIRONMENTS WHERE STUDENTS CAN BE CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE.

TO FIND THOSE FUTURE ENTREPRENEURS THAT CAN EXPOSE THEM TO THINGS THAT THEY CAN -- CAN FLOURISH WITH.

AND THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS TIME.

FOR MORE ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION, VISIT OUR WEB SITE, CHECK US OUT ON FACEBOOK AND INSTAGRAM, AND JOIN THE CONVERSATION ON TWITTER.

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UNTIL NEXT TIME, I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

THANKS FOR WATCHING.

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