SciTech Now Episode 202

In this episode of SciTech Now, scientists at the University of South Florida use a new method for tracking fish populations; Dr. Martin Blaser on the pitfalls of antibiotics, from allergies to obesity; John Howell of the Univesity of Rochester on the science behind invisibility; and a New Jersey water treatment plant is reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by turning waste into energy.

TRANSCRIPT

COMING UP.. A LOOK UNDER WATER..

THINK OFF THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA THAT IT'S WELL-EXPLORE AND WE KNOW WHAT'S THERE, AN ACTUALLY THE OPPOSITE IS TRUE.

AND SO, IN SOME SENSE, WE'RE FLYING BLIND OVER VERY LARGE AREAS.

...ANTIBIOTICS -- ONCE TH CURE, NOW A POTENTIAL CONCERN...

ANTIBIOTICS ARE EVERYWHER BECAUSE WE THOUGHT THAT THEY WERE FREE, THAT THEY WOULD ONL GIVE US BENEFIT AND WOULDN'T HAVE ANY LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES, AND WE'RE FINDING MORE AND MOR THAT THEY DO

...THE SCIENCE OF PAPER AIRPLANES...

MY PLANE CLIMBS ON ITS OW AND THEN REALLY FLARES THAT LAST THIRD, FLYING ACROSS THE FINIS LINE RATHER THAN CRASHING INTO IT

...AND ROBOTS MAKIN THEMSELVES AT HOME

THE MOST SURPRISING THING FOR ME, WATCHING THE ROBOT COOK, IS HOW ACTUALLY DELICATE AND PRECISE IT CAN BE.

IT DOES THINGS LIKE WIPING A LADLE ON THE SIDE OF A SAUCEPA TO GET OFF DRIPS FROM THE BOTTOM IN A WAY THAT I WOULD DO IT.

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING, LEWIS B. AND LOUISE HIRSCHFELD CULLMAN, SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PARTICIPATING STATIONS

HELLO I'M HARI SREENIVASAN WELCOME TO 'SciTech NOW', OU WEEKLY PROGRAM BRINGING YOU TH LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION LET'S GET STARTED.

HOW MANY FISH ARE THERE IN THE OCEAN?

TO TRY TO ANSWER THAT QUESTION SCIENTISTS AT TH UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA IN SAINT PETERSBURG, FLORIDA, HAV CREATED C-BASS AN UNDERWATER HIGH-RESOLUTION CAMERA THA GIVES US A LOOK AT LIFE ALON THE OCEAN'S FLOOR.

HERE'S A LOOK.

♪♪

HOW MANY FISH ARE THERE I THE GULF OF MEXICO MARINE FISHERIES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ESTIMATING POPULATIONS T DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF FISH THAT CAN BE HARVESTED EACH YEAR.

THE PROCESS IS PLAGUED WIT CONTROVERSY.

OUR INITIAL GOAL WAS TO TRY TO SEE IF WE COULD ADD SCIENCE TO THIS CONTROVERSY ABOUT HO MANY FISH THERE ARE OUT ON, IN THIS CASE, THE WEST FLORID SHELF, BUT IN GENERAL, I RE-FISHED SYSTEMS.

DR. STEVEN MURAWSKI AND A TEAM OF SCIENTISTS TACKLED THE ISSUE HEAD ON.

TRADITIONAL FISH-COUNT METHODS INCLUDED TRAWLING, OR NETTING, FISH OFF THE OCEAN FLOOR

THAT'S FINE IF YOU'RE WORKING IN A SANDY HABITAT OR A MUDD HABITAT, BUT IF YOU'RE ROLLING OVER REEFS, RIGHT, NUMBER ONE, YOU RIP UP THE NET, AND, NUMBE TWO, YOU RIP UP THE HABITAT.

♪♪

AFTER OBTAINING A GRANT DR. MURAWSKI AND HIS TEA DESIGNED AND CREATED THE C-BASS, OR CAMERA-BASED ASSESSMENT SURVEY SYSTEM.

DR. MURAWSKI CAME TO US WIT IDEAS OF HOW HE WANTED THE SYSTEM TO WORK AND WHAT HE WANTED TO TRY TO ACCOMPLISH WITH IT, AND WE TOOK THAT AS A GROU OF MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERS, AN MACHINISTS AND TECHNICIANS, AN CAME UP WITH C-BASS AN DEVELOPED IT AND BUILT IT.

THE FIRST STEP WAS TO FOCUS ON IMAGING

WE STARTED OUT WITH THE PHILOSOPHY OF DOING BOTH LOW-RESOLUTION AND HIGH-RESOLUTION VIDEO BECAUS THE LOW-RESOLUTION CAMERAS CAN BE USED TO SIZE EVERYTHING THA WE'RE SEEING IN THE IMAGERY, BUT THEN WE HAVE A HIGH-RESOLUTION VIDEO TO BE ABLE TO GO BACK AN LOOK AND IDENTIFY WITH GREATER DETAIL AS TO EXACTLY WHAT WE'R SEEING ♪♪ IN ADDITION TO THAT, THE COMMUNICATIONS IS A DSL MODEM, SO VERY SIMILAR TO YOUR OL PHONE MODEMS, AND WE CAN GET ABOUT A MEG AND A HALF O BANDWIDTH TO SEND VIDEO FROM THE VARIOUS CAMERAS, AS WELL AS AL THE SENSOR DATA THAT WE HAVE SUCH AS THE ALTITUDE AND THE DEPTH AND THE WATER CLARITY.

WITH A FULLY FUNCTIONIN COMPUTER, SIX CAMERAS, LIGHTS, AND OTHER MEASURING DEVICES, THE C-BASS IS TAKEN OUT INTO THE GULF OF MEXICO ON TH A 115-FOOT RESEARCH VESSEL BELONGING TO THE FLORIDA OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTE, BASED IN SAINT PETERSBURG, FLORIDA.

GENERALLY, WHAT WE DO IS WE NAVIGATE OUT OF TAMPA BAY.

ONCE WE GET ON SITE, YOU KNOW, IF WE'RE WORKING IN A PLACE SUCH AS THE MIDDLE GROUNDS OR A PLACE THAT'S POPULAR FOR COMMERCIA AND RECREATIONAL FISHERMEN, WE DEAL A LOT WITH THOSE GUYS I OUR WAY, IF YOU WILL, WHIL WE'RE DOING CERTAIN TOWS O DIFFERENT WORK THEN, OUT IN THE OIL PATCH, IT'S VERY BUSY WITH OFFSHORE-SUPPLY VESSELS, CREW BOATS, THE RIG THEMSELVES, SO TRAFFIC CAN B VERY HIGH OUT THERE.

♪♪

ONCE THEY REACH THEIR CHOSE LOCATION, THE C-BASS IS LOWERE INTO THE WATER AND TOWED TWO T THREE METERS ABOVE THE GUL FLOOR.

WELL, WE TYPICALLY TOW AT ABOUT 3½ KNOTS, AND WE ARE CURRENTLY LIMITED TO ABOUT 200 METERS, OR 660 FEET, DEPTH THAT'S MOST OF THE WEST FLORID SHELF, SO THAT'S MOST OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE SHORE O FLORIDA AND OUT TO ABOUT 100 T 120 MILES OFFSHORE ♪♪ SO WE NEED GOOD MAPS AHEAD O TIME BEFORE WE CAN GO OUT, W NEED TO KNOW WHAT THE BATHYMETRY IS, AND WHILE WE'RE TOWING THE C-BASS THROUGH THE WATER, WE'R WATCHING THE POSITION OF THE BOAT RELATIVE TO THOSE BATHYMETRY MAPS, AS WELL AS HIGH-RESOLUTION SONAR ON THE BOAT

BATHYMETRY MAPS ARE THREE-DIMENSIONAL AND HELP THE TEAM KNOW WHERE OBSTACLES MAY BE OR CHANGES IN DEPTH, SO AS T AVOID ANY COLLISIONS WITH REEF OR ROCK OUTCROPPINGS

AND IT'S REALLY FASCINATING BECAUSE YOU THINK OFF THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA THAT IT'S WELL-EXPLORED AND WE KNOW WHAT'S THERE, AND ACTUALLY THE OPPOSITE IS TRUE.

THERE'S VERY FEW HIGH-RESOLUTION MAPS OF THE BOTTOM DEPTHS OU THERE, AND SO, IN SOME SENSE WE'RE FLYING BLIND OVER VERY LARGE AREAS.

THE VISIBILITY OF THE WATER, THE WATER TEMPERATURES, AND TH PRESSURES MAKE IT MUCH MOR DIFFICULT TO POINT A CAMERA AT A FISH UNDER THERE, AS OPPOSED T THROUGH THE PIECE OF GLASS AT AN AQUARIUM

HUNDREDS OF HOURS OF VIDE ARE COLLECTED ON A TYPICAL 8 TO 10-DAY TRIP AT SEA.

I'M THE ONE THAT GOES THROUGH ALL THE VIDEO.

I WATCH IT, AND I DO FISH COUNTS AND IDENTIFICATION FIRST AND THEN, AFTER THAT, I CONVER THOSE COUNTS TO DENSITY USIN THE HIGH-RESOLUTION BATHYMETRY MAPS THAT WE HAVE AND, ALSO, CALCULATING THE FIELD OF VIE THAT I'VE SEEN IN THAT VIDEO AND THEN EXTRAPOLATE THAT TO THE TOTAL-ABUNDANCE ESTIMATES THAT COULD POTENTIALLY BE IN TH AREAS THAT WE'VE SAMPLED ♪♪ ONE THING THAT WE'RE VER CONSCIOUS OF IS THE FACT THAT CERTAIN PROPORTION OF FISH MAY BE SCARED AWAY BY THE SYSTEM TRYING TO ESTIMATE WHAT LEVE THAT IS IS SOMETHING THAT I'VE BEEN WORKING ON, AS WELL AS HO IT VARIES FROM SPECIES T SPECIES.

SARAH GRASTY IS NOW ABLE TO PROVIDE ACCURATE INFORMATION O THE NUMBER AND SPECIES OF FISH IN THE REEF AND ROCKY AREAS IN THE GULF

WE CONCENTRATE OUR EFFORT I THE AREAS WE THINK THE FISH AR GONNA BE, WHILE STILL MAKING SURE THAT WE COVER ALL THE POTENTIAL HABITATS

SHE'S OBSERVED A VARIETY OF INTERESTING SPECIES, BUT SOMETIMES HER MONITORS ARE FILLED BY THOSE LOVABL DOLPHINS

THE DOLPHINS LOVE OUR SYSTEM.

OUR THEORY IS THAT THEY LIKE THE ALTIMETER BECAUSE IT'S PINGING CONSTANTLY ALSO, THEY'RE PLAYFUL.

THEY MIGHT JUST WANT TO SWIM ALONGSIDE IT 'CAUSE IT'S SOMETHING DIFFERENT.

IT'S INTERESTING, IT'S FUN, IT'S COOL WHEN YOU SEE THEM FOR THE FIRST MAYBE FIVE MINUTES, BU WE'VE HAD THEM HANG AROUND FOR UPWARDS OF THREE HOURS THEY'RE FUN FOR A LITTLE BIT AND THEN THEY'RE MORE OF A HINDRANCE THAN ANYTHING.

ALTHOUGH DOLPHINS MAY SCARE AWAY THE FISH, THESE SCIENTIST HAVE LEARNED THAT THE C-BASS ITSELF IS IGNORED BY MOS SPECIES.

SARAH, MY GRADUATE STUDENT, WAS ABLE TO SHOW THAT, FOR MOS OF THESE SPECIES, THEY'RE PRETTY MUCH NEUTRAL TO THIS DEVICE.

SO WE'RE CAUTIOUSLY OPTIMISTIC THAT WE'VE DEVELOPED A TOOL THAT CAN GATHER THE DATA WE NEED AN IT'S WITHOUT SERIOUS BIAS IN ORDER TO DO THESE COUNTS ♪♪

TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES OF DEVELOPING FISH ESTIMATES DATE BACK TO THE 19th CENTURY, BU THERE'S TYPICAL A TWO-YEAR LAG TIME ON GETTING THE DATA WITH THE C-BASS, VALUABL INFORMATION CAN BE DELIVERED I JUST A FEW WEEKS

SO, THE HOPE FOR THE FUTURE IS, ONCE WE HAVE PROVEN THAT THIS IS A VIABLE, ACCURATE WAY TO DETERMINE FISH ABUNDANCE, I TO IMPLEMENT IT IN FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

THERE'S BEEN MANY EXAMPLES OF OVERFISHING THE STOCKS TO TH POINT WHERE THEY'VE COLLAPSED, AND SO WHAT WE WANT TO DO IS BASICALLY INJECT NEW SCIENCE INTO THIS WHOLE MANAGEMENT PARADIGM TO ASSURE THAT THERE' ADEQUATE REPRODUCTION AN ADEQUATE SPAWNERS FOR THE FUTURE SO THAT THESE POPULATIONS CA EXIST.

♪♪ [ WIND RUSHING ]

ANTIBIOTICS, ONCE CONSIDERE WONDER DRUGS, MAY BE BEHIND SOME OF TODAY'S AILMENTS, FRO ALLERGIES TO OBESITY JOINING ME NOW TO TALK ABOUT THE FUTURE OF ANTIBIOTIC USE I DR. MARTIN BLASER, AUTHOR OF 'MISSING MICROBES' AND PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE AND MICROBIOLOGY A NEW YORK UNIVERSITY.

SO, YOU STUDY SOMETHING AND TALK ABOUT SOMETHING CALLED THE 'MICROBIOME.

WHAT IS THAT

WELL, FIRST, I'M HAPPY TO B HERE, AS OUR MY TRILLION BACTERIA THAT LIVE IN ME, AN THAT'S KIND OF THE INTRODUCTION.

THE MICROBIOME IS ALL TH MICROBES THAT LIVE IN AND ON OUR BODIES

AND HOW DO THEY IMPACT OU ALLERGIES OR OUR FOO TOLERANCES

WELL, EVER SINCE THERE HAVE BEEN ANIMALS ON THIS PLANET, THEY'VE HAD MICROBES LIVING IN US, AND THEY'RE PART OF OU BIOLOGY.

THEY'RE PART OF OUR PHYSIOLOGY AND MY IDEA IS THAT THAT'S THE WAY IT ALWAYS WAS, BUT RECENTLY, THINGS HAVE BEEN CHANGIN BECAUSE OF THINGS LIKE ANTIBIOTICS AND CESAREAN SECTIONS AND DISINFECTANTS AND OUR MICROBES AREN'T THE WA THEY USED TO BE, AND WE HAVE EVIDENCE THAT THAT'S TRUE.

AND THE POINT IS THAT THIS SEEMS TO HAVE CONSEQUENCE, THAT TH CHANGE IN THE MICROBES ARE MAKING US MORE AT RISK FOR OBESITY AND FOR ASTHMA AND FOR ALLERGY.

IS IT BECAUSE WE'RE S CAUTIOUS AND SO CONCERNED ABOU BEING CLEAN AROUND OUR CHILDRE AND DISINFECTING OUR HANDS AND MAKING SURE OF THAT?

I THINK THAT'S PART OF IT BUT THAT'S THE SMALLER PART OF IT I THINK THE BIGGER PART IS JUS WHAT I'VE SAID WE'VE HAD THESE ANCIENT MICROBES LIVING IN OUR BODY FOR GENERATIONS AND GENERATIONS, SINCE TIME IMMEMORIAL, AND THOSE ANCIENT ONES ARE VERY IMPORTAN EARLY IN LIFE, AND THOSE ARE CHANGING BECAUSE OF ALL TH COURSES OF ANTIBIOTICS THAT KIDS ARE GETTING.

AND WHEN KIDS ARE BORN B CESAREAN SECTION, THEY'R MISSING THAT FIRST GROUP O BACTERIA THAT, KIDS WHO ARE BORN VAGINALLY, THEY GET THROUGH TH BIRTH CANAL.

THEY'RE MISSING THAT, TOO.

AND THE IDEA IS THAT IT' CUMULATIVE, THAT ALL THESE THINGS ARE ADDING UP

SO, ONE OF THE THINGS THA HAS GOTTEN A LITTLE BIT OF ATTENTION IS SORT OF BROAD-SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS AND THAT WE'RE MAYBE OVERMEDICATIN OURSELVES FOR THE COMMON COLD.

SO CAN'T WE MAKE NARROW-SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS?

WE MAKE NARROW-SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS, BUT WE DON' BECAUSE THE WHOLE EMPHASIS HAS BEEN FOR BROAD-SPECTRU ANTIBIOTICS, BUT NOW WE HAVE MUCH MORE KNOWLEDGE.

WE HAVE MANY MORE TOOLS.

WE COULD MAKE NARROW-SPECTRU ANTIBIOTICS.

WE COULD SAY, 'OKAY, THIS CHIL HAS A STREP THROAT THIS CHILD HAS A VIRAL INFECTION.

THEY DON'T NEED ANTIBIOTICS AT ALL.

WE COULD TAKE A DRUG OFF THE SHELF JUST FOR THAT BUG IF W HAD THAT DRUG.

WE DON'T HAVE IT NOW A LOT OF IT IS KNOWLEDGE AND COST THERE'S JUST NO INCENTIV BECAUSE EVERYBODY THINKS THAT $5 OR $10 ANTIBIOTIC IS GREAT.

NOBODY THOUGHT THAT THERE WAS SIDE EFFECT.

ARE THERE DIFFERENT PATTERN IN HOW WE USE ANTIBIOTICS TODAY?

THERE ARE DIFFERENT PATTERN ACROSS THE UNITED STATES PEOPLE IN THE SOUTH ARE USIN ANTIBIOTICS AT 50% HIGHER LEVE THAN PEOPLE IN THE WEST.

AND WHAT'S THE RIPPLE EFFEC OF THAT?

WELL, IF YOU LOOK AT THE MA OF OBESITY IN THE UNITED STATE AND YOU LINE UP THE STATES WHERE THERE'S A LOT OF OBESITY, THOS ARE ALSO THE STATES WHER THERE'S A LOT OF ANTIBIOTIC USE.

NOW, IS THAT CORRELATION OR CAUSATION?

THAT IS CORRELATION THAT IS CORRELATION.

BUT IT CAUSATION, BUT IT HASN'T BEEN PROVEN, AND THAT'S WHY WE DO EXPERIMENTS I MICE SO THAT WE CAN LOOK A CAUSATION.

AND WE'VE DONE EXPERIMENTS I WHICH WE GIVE MICE ANTIBIOTICS EARLY IN LIFE, OR NOT, AND THE WE ASK, HOW ARE THEY GONNA DEVELOP?

HOW IS THERE IMMUNE SYSTEM GONNA DEVELOP?

HOW'S THERE BODY MASS GONN DEVELOP?

AND WE HAVE EVIDENCE THAT TH EARLY-LIFE ANTIBIOTICS ARE CHANGING THE DEVELOPMENT O THEIR IMMUNITY AND ALSO OF THEIR METABOLISM THE MICE ARE GETTING FATTER.

IN YOUR BOOK, YOU DESCRIBE AN 'ANTIBIOTIC WINTER.'

WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

THAT'S A VERY SCARY STORY I'M EVEN SCARED TO TALK ABOU IT THE IDEA IS THAT OUR MICROBIOME, IN ADDITION TO BEING INVOLVED IN METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY, IS PART OF OUR DEFENSE SYSTEM.

THEY'RE PART OF OUR COAST GUARD, GUARDING US AGAINST INVADERS AND WE'RE DEGRADING OU MICROBIOME THERE'S MORE AND MORE EVIDENCE THAT WE'VE LOST DIVERSITY.

AND SO WHAT ANTIBIOTIC WINTE MEANS IS THAT MAYBE ONE DA THERE'S GONNA BE A PLAGUE THAT WE CAN'T DEAL WITH BECAUSE WE'VE LOST OUR DIVERSITY

DR. MARTIN BLASER FROM NYU, THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

THANK YOU [ KEYBOARD CLACKING

THE SCIENCE OF FLIGHT HAS ALWAYS ATTRACTED THOSE WITH PIONEERING SPIRIT.

JOHN COLLINS, TH SELF-PROCLAIME 'PAPER AIRPLANE GUY' HAS TRANSFORMED THE CREATION O PAPER GLIDERS INTO A SERIOUS SKILL BY MASTERING BOTH THE AR OF ORIGAMI AND THE STUDY O AERODYNAMICS COLLINS JOINS US TO DISCUSS HI BOOK, 'THE NEW WORLD CHAMPIO PAPER AIRPLANE,' HIS TIME AT THE 2015 MAKER FAIRE, AND HOW HE MANAGED TO BREAK THE RECORD FO THE LONGEST FLIGHT SO, WHAT DO ONE OF THESE HAVE TO DO WITH TEACHING SCIENCE IN CLASSROOM?

WELL, HOPEFULLY, SOON, QUIT A LOT BECAUSE THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IS BUILT INTO EVERY PAPER-AIRPLANE THROW WHEN YOU PICK THE PLANE UP AND THROW IT, YOU CAN SEE WHAT I DOES, AND THEN YOU START IMMEDIATELY DEVISING A LITTL EXPERIMENT TO FIGURE OUT HOW T MAKE IT FLY BETTER OR DO WHA YOU WANT AND PAPER AIRPLANES ARE A GREA WAY INTO REALLY COMPLEX SUBJEC MATERIAL YOU CAN DO THE RUDIMENTS O MEASUREMENT, YOU CAN DO TH RUDIMENTS OF TRACKING THINGS LIKE GLIDE RATIO, YOU CAN TALK ABOUT LIFT AND DRAG AN THRUST -- ALL THOSE KINDS OF THINGS THAT ARE CLASSI AERODYNAMIC TOPICS OF DISCUSSION YOU CAN DO WITH SOMETHING SO SIMPLE AND SO INEXPENSIVE AS A PAPER AIRPLANE

WHAT'S THE IMPACT OR WHAT'S THE INFLUENCE OF ORIGAMI WHY'D YOU STUDY THAT WHAT DID IT HELP YOU DO?

WELL, I WAS ONE OF THE FIRS PEOPLE TO TAKE ALL OF THOS FOLDING TRICKS FROM THE ANCIEN ART OF ORIGAMI, JAPANESE PAPER FOLDING, AND BRING THOSE BACK TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE PAPER AIRPLANES.

MY GOAL WAS REALLY TO CREATE A WHOLE SET OF PLANES THAT COULD BE FOLDED.

SO IF YOU DIDN'T HAVE ACCESS T ANYTHING EXCEPT JUST A PIECE O PAPER -- SOMETHING YOU CAN GET YOUR HANDS ON FOR FREE -- YO COULD STILL MAKE A REALL HIGH-PERFORMANCE, GREAT PAPE AIRPLANE

WHAT WAS YOUR SECRET?

I MEAN, WHAT DID YOU LEARN ABOUT HOW TO FOLD OR HOW TO THIN ABOUT DESIGNING YOUR AIRCRAF THAT MADE IT GO MORE THA 220-SOMETHING FEET

WELL, I THINK THE ORIGAMI AUTOMATICALLY BRINGS SORT OF A SENSE OF PRECISION TO TH FOLDING PROCESS.

SO THERE'S A LOT OF REALLY - WHEN YOU GET INTO THE HIGHER-END ORIGAMI, PRECISION IS REALLY ESSENTIAL, SO THAT CARE WITH FOLDING AND THE PRECISION AN LOOKING AT THINGS WITH A REA EYE TOWARD DETAIL.

AND THEN, WHEN YOU MIX THAT WITH A LITTLE BIT OF AERODYNAMI KNOWLEDGE, YOU CAN REALLY STAR TO REALLY MAKE SOM BREAKTHROUGHS.

AND WHEN YOU WATCH THE VIDEO O MY PLANE BREAK THE WORLD RECORD, YOU CAN SEE ITS LAUNCH LEVEL, IT CLIMBS ON ITS OWN, AND THE REALLY FLARES THAT LAST THIRD, FLYING ACROSS THE FINISH LIN RATHER THAN CRASHING INTO IT

OKAY, AND YOU'VE ACTUALLY - YOU'RE CHALLENGING THE WORLD T BREAK YOUR RECORD.

YOU'RE ACTUALLY INTERESTED I SEEING IT MOVE

YEAH, SO, WORLD-RECORD DA WAS OUR WORST PRACTICE DAY O THE YEAR WE ONLY THREW 226 FEET WE'D THROWN 240 FEET AND BEYOND.

SO IT WAS A LITTLE DISAPPOINTING TO ONLY BREAK THE WORLD RECORD BY 19½ FEET.

SO, WHAT I'D LOVE TO DO IS ISSUE A CHALLENGE.

I'LL GIVE ANYBODY $1,000 TO US MY DESIGN AND THROW FURTHER THAN MY WORLD RECORD.

I KNOW THE PLANE GOES THAT FAR IT MIGHT GO FURTHER.

IT MIGHT HAVE 300 FEET IN IT I'D LOVE TO SEE WHAT SOMEBOD ELSE CAN DO WITH MY DESIGN, AN SO [CHUCKLES] I'M WILLING TO PAY FOR THAT

AND YOU'RE NOT NECESSARIL TRYING TO COMPETE.

YOU WANT KIDS TO TRY IT.

I WOULD LOVE KIDS TO TAKE THIS DESIGN, TAKE IT APART FIGURE IT OUT, LEARN HOW TO MAKE IT BETTER, YOU KNOW, TRY SOM DIFFERENT THINGS IT'S ALL ABOUT EXPERIMENTATION YOU KNOW, MOST PEOPLE DON' THINK THEY CAN FOLD A GOOD PLANE, BUT THE REALITY IS THEY CAN FOLD A GOOD PLANE -- THE JUST HAVEN'T TAKEN THE TIME TO LEARN HOW TO A GOOD PLANE.

AND THE DEVIL IS REALLY IN THE DETAILS WHEN IT COMES TO PAPER AIRPLANES -- ADJUSTING I PERFECTLY, LEARNING HOW TO THROW IT WELL.

THESE THINGS GET YOU PRETTY FAR.

YOU KNOW, THIS IS ALS PROBABLY THE EASIEST EXAMPLE O THE DO-IT-YOURSELF MOVEMENT.

AND THE MAKER FAIRES THAT YOU'VE BEEN TO RECENTLY, THEY SEEM TO BE GROWING IN POPULARITY AROUN THE COUNTRY.

YOU KNOW, THERE'S SO MANY VIRTUAL EXPERIENCES YOU CAN HAVE NOW, AND THE WEB IS AN AMAZING THING, AND YOU CAN CONTACT AUTHORS PERSONALLY ALL THAT STUFF IS GREAT, BUT I THINK PEOPLE ARE LEFT WITH THE SENSE OF -- THAT THE DO-IT-YOURSELF PART HAS BEEN TAKEN AWAY, AND MAKER FAIRES ARE THIS AMAZING EXPERIENCE WHER PEOPLE ARE MAKING EVERYTHING FROM FOOD TO CLOTHING TO ARDUINO-TRIGGERED THINGS YOU SEE REMOTE-CONTROLLE DRONES, YOU SEE ROBOTS, YOU SE 3-D PRINTERS -- THIS WHOLE ARRAY OF STUFF THAT'S JUST FEEDING THIS HUNGER THAT PEOPLE HAVE FOR JUST SIMPLY INTERACTING WITH A PHYSICAL OBJECT, FOR JUST MAKING THINGS

ALL RIGHT, JOHN COLLINS, TH PAPER AIRPLANE GUY THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

AH, THANKS FOR HAVING ME, HARI

AND TO WATCH JOHN TEACH M HOW TO MAKE THE WORLD-RECORD PAPER AIRPLANE, HEAD TO OU WEBSITE, scitechnow.org.

[ KEYBOARD CLACKING ROBOTS ARE CREEPING INTO OUR HOMES.

THEY'RE CLEANING FLOORS, WASHING WINDOWS, AND COOKING DINNER.

OUR PARTNER LOOKS AT HOW ROBOTIC DEVICES ARE BECOMING MORE PREVALENT.

♪♪

ROBOTS MAY NOT YET HAVE TAKEN OVER THE WORLD, AS SCIENCE-FICTION WRITER PREVIOUSLY PREDICTED, BUT THEY COULD SOON BE TAKING OVER OU HOMES.

THERE ARE NOW ROBOTIC DEVICES TO CLEAN FLOORS, WASH WINDOWS, AN SCRUB GUTTERS, AS WELL AS MORE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES SUCH A ROBOTIC HELPERS FOR THE ELDERLY.

THE LATEST HOME ROBOT IS MOLEY AN AUTOMATED KITCHEN THA FEATURES A DEXTEROUS ROBOT THA COOKS WITH THE SKILL OF A CHEF CREATED BY MOLEY ROBOTICS, THE SYSTEM USES TWO ROBOT HANDS THAT REPRODUCE THE MOVEMENTS OF A PERSON COOKING FROM A VIDE RECORDING.

IT'S TWO ROBOTIC HAND ON TH TWO ROBOTIC ARMS, AND IT'S A LOT OF PROFESSIONAL EQUIPMEN INSIDE, WHICH CAN GIVE YOU POSSIBILITY TO MAKE ANY KIND O DISH FROM ANY CHEF IN THE WORLD.

YOU CAN OPERATE THIS DEVICE BY YOURSELF, SO YOU CAN COOK BY YOURSELF ON THIS KITCHEN WITHOUT ANY LIMITATION YOU CAN RECORD YOUR MOTION DURING THE COOKING PROCESS, AN YOU CAN DUPLICATE IT JUST AN TIME AND HAVE THE SAME RESULT.

THE COMPANY PLANS TO LAUNCH A PRODUCT IN 2017 FOR A TARGET PRICE OF £10,000 MOLEY WORKED WITH U.K. ROBOTIC STARTUP SHADOW ROBOTS, WHICH HAS ALSO MADE ROBOTIC HANDS FO NASA, TO MAKE SURE THE HANDS WERE AS DEXTEROUS AND ACCURATE AS POSSIBLE.

THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE FOR U IN KIND OF THE OVERALL SYSTEM IS ACTUALLY WORKING OUT HOW TO GE A REALLY GOOD VERSION OF THE HUMAN MOTION MAPPED ONTO THE ROBOT MOTION BECAUSE THE ARM AND THE HANDS ARE NOT QUITE TH SAME GEOMETRICALLY AS A HUMA AND BECAUSE YOU'RE TRYING TO CAPTURE QUITE SUBTLE MOVEMENTS THAT MAPPING PROCESS IS ACTUALLY A REAL CHALLENGE

TIM ANDERSON, THE 2011 WINNER OF BBC's 'MasterChef' TV SHOW, WAS ALSO INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT.

THE MOST SURPRISING THING FOR ME, WATCHING THE ROBOT COOK, IS HOW ACTUALLY DELICATE AND PRECISE IT CAN BE.

IT DOES THINGS LIKE WIPING A LADLE ON THE SIDE OF A SAUCEPA TO GET OFF DRIPS FROM TH BOTTOM, YOU KNOW, IT SCRAPES BUTTER OFF OF A SPATULA JUST I A WAY THAT I WOULD DO IT IT'S REALLY INTERESTING TO SEE HOW IT'S 'CHEFY' IN A WAY.

IT'S NOT JUST -- IT DOESN'T FEEL LIKE A ROBOT COOKING IT FEELS LIKE A COOKING.

THE LAUNCH OF THIS ROBOTI KITCHEN COMES AS GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SO-CALLED 'PERSONAL SERVIC ROBOTS,' WHICH RANGE FRO ROBOTIC VACUUM CLEANERS TO LAW MOWERS, CONTINUES TO RIS RAPIDLY.

ACCORDING TO INDUSTRY FORECASTS, ABOUT 15.5 MILLION OF THES HOUSEHOLD ROBOTS WILL BE SOL BETWEEN 2013 AND 2016, COMPARE TO JUST 2 MILLION IN 2012.

DOMESTIC ROBOTS ARE STARTING T EVOLVE BEYOND THE AUTONOMOUS VACUUM CLEANER THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY IN RECENT YEARS HAS LED TO TH INTRODUCTION OF MORE HIGH-TECH MACHINES, SUCH AS ROBOTS USED TO HELP THE ELDERLY OR IMPAIRED DR. ALDO FAISAL, A LECTURER IN NEUROTECHNOLOGY AT IMPERIAL COLLEGE IN LONDON, IS WORKING ON A 4-MILLION-EUR PROJECT FUNDED BY TH EUROPEAN COMMISSION TO DEVELOP ASSISTED ROBOTICS THAT DECODES THE INTENTION OF PEOPLE FROM THEIR EYE MOVEMENTS TO HEL PEOPLE THAT ARE PARALYZED OR ELDERLY.

OUR SOCIETIES I INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES ARE RAPIDLY AGING, AND CHINA AND OTHER COUNTRIES ARE CATCHING U QUICKLY WITH AGE DISTRIBUTION.

SO WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A HUGE GAP BETWEEN CARE PROVIDERS, OR CARERS, AND PEOPLE THAT HELP ELDERLY.

AND SO ROBOTICS THAT IS AIMED AT ASSISTED LIVING IS GOING TO TAKE OFF VERY SOON.

IT ALREADY HAS STARTED TO TAKE OFF, BE IT ROBOTS THAT HELP YO TRANSFER PEOPLE FROM AND TO BED TO JUST SUPPORT YOU IN YOU DAILY CHORES AND SO THAT'S A DIFFERENT LEVE OF ACCEPTANCE THAT WE REQUIRE, AND THERE'S CONSIDERABLE AMOUN OF FUNDING GOING INTO THAT DIRECTION TO SUPPORT THA DEVELOPMENT.

THE MAJORITY OF THE 2.7 MILLION PERSONAL ROBOTS SOLD EACH YEAR ARE CURRENTLY VACUUM CLEANERS DYSON, THE BRITISH COMPANY FAMOUS FOR ITS BAGLESS VACUU CLEANERS, RECENTLY BECAME TH LATEST HOUSEHOLD BRAND TO LAUNCH ONE, JOINING THE LIKES O SAMSUNG, LG, AND U.S. COMPAN iROBOT

THE DYSON 360 EYE ROBOT I DIFFERENT TO OTHER PRODUCTS ON THE MARKET BECAUSE IT'S DESIGNED AS A VACUUM CLEANER FIRST AND ROBOT SECOND SO, FOR US, IT'S ALL ABOUT BEING A VACUUM CLEANER IT HAS TO HAVE GOOD PICKUP, AN IT HAS TO PERFORM WELL YOU WANT THE USER TO B CONFIDENT THAT IT'S GONNA CLEA THE ROOM AND THE FACT THAT IT'S ROBOTIC IS ACTUALLY JUST AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY AUTONOMOUS PRODUCTS WILL BECOM MORE PREVALENT IN THE HOME, BU I THINK IT'S GONNA BE GRADUAL.

NAVIGATION TOOK 5, 10 YEARS TO GET TO THE STAGE WHERE IT IS NOW, AND EVERYTHING WILL B GRADUAL.

AS EACH OF THESE TECHNOLOGIE IMPROVE, YOU'LL SEE MORE AND MORE FUNCTIONALITY GRADUALLY BEING ADDED.

WHAT'S NOT CLEAR AT THE MOMENT IS WHETHER THAT WILL LEAD TO A SINGLE ROBOT THAT DOES EVERYTHING OR MULTIPLE SMALLER MACHINES THAT HAVE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FUNCTIONALITY, BUT D THEM REALLY WELL

WHILE IT MAY TAKE SOME TIME BEFORE WE SEE ROBOTS WIDEL HELPING THE ELDERLY AND IMPAIRED AROUND THEIR HOMES, TH TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS O ROBOTIC VACUUMS AND OTHER FLOO CLEANERS COULD SOON SEE THEM BECOME STANDARD APPLIANCES AROUND MOST PEOPLE'S HOMES ♪♪

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