SciTech Now Episode 19

Episode nineteen of SciTech Now brings you the latest breakthroughs in science, technology and innovation. We look at LEDs to rethink lighting and meet a group of students who are staying after school to learn STEM.

TRANSCRIPT

COMING UP, DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY IS LIGHTING THE WAY...

I FELT THAT WE COULD PIONEE A COMPANY THAT SOLVED TH FRUSTRATIONS, BOTH ON TH INSTALLATION AND THE CONSUME SIDE

...THE LARGEST DAM REMOVAL IN U.S. HISTORY..

ALL OF THE SEDIMENT THA WOULD OTHERWISE HAVE BEE DELIVERED FROM THE RIVER WAS HELD BEHIND THE DAM.

...THE TEEN MAKERS MOVEMENT

...THE L.E.D.s ARE GOING TO BE THE BAT'S EYES, SO THEY'L TURN ON, AND THEY'LL BE LIKE 'WHOA!

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

HELLO I'M HARI SREENIVASAN WELCOME TO 'SciTech NOW,' OU WEEKLY PROGRAM BRINGING YOU TH LATEST BREAKTHROUGHS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION LET'S GET STARTED.

ONE FLORIDA ARTIST I RE-INVENTING TECHNOLOGY TO SHINE A LIGHT ON HIS OWN WORK -- LITERALLY.

HERE'S THE STORY

I WAS DOING AN INSTALLATION IN DOWNTOWN TAMPA, WHERE I NEEDED TO LIGHT AN ENTIRE CITY BLOCK WITH SCULPTURAL PANELS ON A GARAGE.

WHEN I LOOKED AT THE LIGHTIN OPTIONS, THE TRADITIONAL CONVENTIONAL SOLUTION WAS GONN USE 20,000 WATTS OF POWER.

ALARMED BY THE HIGH COST OF POWER, ERIC TURNED TO L.E.D.

LIGHTING FIXTURES AN CONTROLLERS TO SAVE MONEY.

I ACTUALLY TEAMED UP WITH A GENTLEMAN WORKING IN HIS GARAGE, DOING BOARD-LEVEL ELECTRONICS.

WE BUILT OUR OWN FIXTURES, AND THE ENTIRE CITY BLOCK TOOK 890 WATTS.

THIS CHALLENGE INSPIRED ERI TO CREATE LumaStream, HIGH-TECH LIGHTING COMPANY

I FELT THAT WE COULD PIONEE A COMPANY THAT SOLVED TH FRUSTRATIONS, BOTH ON TH INSTALLATION AND THE CONSUME SIDE, BUT ALSO AN INFRASTRUCTURE THAT'S SENSIBLE FOR THE INHERENT NATURES OF L.E.D.s

LumaStream WAS BORN, AND TH COMPANY TOOK UP RESIDENCE IN SAINT PETERSBURG, FLORIDA.

THEIR GOAL WAS SIMPLE.

TO CREATE AN L.E.D. LIGHTIN SYSTEM FROM THE GROUND UP.

AGAIN, IT MAXIMIZES THE FEATURES AND EFFICIENCIES OF L.E.D.

THEMSELVES THEY'RE VERY EFFICIENT THE INDUSTRY IS PUSHING HIGH-VOLTAGE FREIGHT TRAIN O POWER THROUGH A HEAVY COPPER INFRASTRUCTURE -- ROMEX, MC CABLE, PIPE ALL THE LABOR THAT GOES IN WE SAID, 'THE FIXTURE USES A TRICKLE OF WATTS, SO LET'S PUT IT ON THAT INFRASTRUCTURE THAT SERVES FOR THAT LOW-WATTAG CONSUMPTION.

IN ESSENCE, LumaStrea REPLACES LARGE, HEAVY-GAUGE WIRE WITH THIN, LOW-VOLTAGE WIRE -- WITH A BIG COST SAVINGS.

LumaStream ALSO PROVIDES LIGHTING-DESIGN SERVICES THA TAKE ADVANTAGE OF L.E.D.

TECHNOLOGY

ONCE WE OBTAIN A PROJECT, W EVALUATE WHAT THE APPLICATIO IS, THE PROJECT TYPE, WHETHER IT BE A RESTAURANT, RETAIL, BANK.

AND THEN WE EVALUATE WHAT THOS LIGHT LEVELS WOULD WANT TO B FROM A DESIRED LEVEL, FROM A DESIGN-RECOMMENDATION LEVEL, AND THEN TAKE THE INPUT OF THE CLIENT'S WISHES AND CREATE A DESIGN PACKAGE AROUND THOSE TW THINGS

NEXT, THE DESIGNER LOOKS AT WHERE TO PLACE LIGHTS AND HO THAT AFFECTS US.

SO, WE START OFF AT THE VER BASIC LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING WHERE DOES THE LIGHT WANT TO B AND HOW THE HUMAN RESPONSE IS TO LIGHT.

SO WE TAKE THAT INFORMATION AN THEN SELECT PRODUCTS FOR THA AND SPACE THEM WITHIN THE SPAC AND UNDERSTANDING WHERE THOS UNIFORMITIES ARE, WHAT THE LIGHT LEVELS ARE, AND PLAYING WITH THE SPACING OF THAT FROM AN ARTISTIC LEVEL.

LIGHTING DESIGN HAS A FUNCTIONAL AND PRACTICAL SIDE.

WE'RE DESIGNING THINGS FO TASK-LEVEL LIGHTING, SO TO MAK SURE THERE'S A PERFORMANCE THA PEOPLE ARE WORKING UNDER THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF LIGHTIN BUT ALSO CREATING A DESIGN IMAGE, A MOVEMENT WITHIN THE SPACE, SO AS YOU EXPERIENCE IT IT TAKES YOU THROUGH IT AND HA A DIFFERENT SORT OF RESPONSE, AS OPPOSED TO JUST FLOODING IT WITH ALL THE SAME SORT OF LIGHT LEVELS

BUT SOMETIMES THE DESIG REQUIRES CREATIVITY.

ONE OF LumaStream's NEWEST CLIENTS IS ULELE'S, A POPULA RESTAURANT IN DOWNTOWN TAMPA WHERE ALL THE LIGHTING IS FROM THEIR L.E.D. SYSTEM.

A RESTAURANT, YOU WANT TO CREATE A SENSE A MOOD.

AND THEN THERE'S A DIFFERENT LEVEL OF LIGHTING.

IT'S NOT NECESSARILY TAS ORIENTED IT'S MOOD ORIENTED SO WE'RE LOOKING AT LOWER LIGH LEVELS THERE, IN CONTRAST.

IN A RESTAURANT APPLICATION, YOU WANT TO CREATE DRAMA YOU WANT TO CREATE AN EXPERIENCE FOR THE PATRONS THAT ARE COMIN IN, SO WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT THE TASK IS JUST ON THE ACTUAL TABLE ITSELF, BUT THE REST O IT'S CREATING AN EXPERIENCE.

AND THAT'S MORE THE HUMA RESPONSE TO LIGHT, I UNDERSTANDING WHERE THE LIGHTS AND THE DARKS ARE.

THE CONTRAST BETWEEN LIGHT AND DARK CAN CREATE THAT KIND OF MOOD WITHIN A SPACE THAT W TYPICALLY LIKE WHEN WE GO INTO A RESTAURANT AND WANT TO DINE.

SCIENTISTS HAVE BEEN STUDYING HOW LIGHT AFFECTS US IS OU DAILY LIVES.

THERE IS LOTS OF DATA COMIN OUT NOW ABOUT HOW THERE'S HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY IN THE WORKPLAC WITH THE RIGHT-FREQUENCIES LIGHT.

PURCHASING BEHAVIOR IS INFLUENCED WITH THE RIGHT TYPE AND COLOR TEMPERATURE OF LIGHT THERE'S HEALTHCARE BENEFITS, CALMING DOWN PATIENTS AND TH FAMILIES THAT ARE CONCERNE ABOUT THOSE PATIENTS IN WAITIN ROOMS AND THINGS OF THAT NATURE.

THE HUMAN RESPONSE TO LIGHT IS EXCITING IT ENHANCES OUR LIVES AND TH LIVING ENVIRONMENT WE HAVE, AN THIS IS SCIENCE.

TO BRING THIS DISRUPTIV TECHNOLOGY FORWARD, EVERY EFFORT IS MADE TO MAKE THEIR PRODUCTS LOCALLY.

THIS OPERATION HERE IS IN SAINT PETE, FLORIDA.

IT'S IN THE MIDTOWN AREA WE'RE VERY EXCITED TO COME INT THIS PARTICULAR PART OF TOWN AND BRING A HIGH-TECH COMPANY.

OUR PRODUCT IS MADE IN THE U.S AND THE REASON THAT MAKE SENSE -- IT FEELS GOOD, NUMBER ONE.

BUT IT NEEDS TO MAKE ECONOMI SENSE.

AND THE REASON IT MAKES ECONOMIC SENSE IS THAT WE'RE ABLE T RAPID-PROTOTYPE.

INDUSTRY'S MOVING VERY FAST.

WE CAN DO THAT IN A COUPLE DAY RIGHT HERE WE CAN INNOVATE PRODUCT AND GE IT ON THE MARKET AND TEST IT VERY, VERY QUICKLY IT'S A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

THEIR OTHER ADVANTAGE I BEING ABLE TO DIM AND CONTRO THE OUTPUT OF L.E.D. LIGHTS IN A PRECISE WAY.

WHAT WE CAN DO WITH L.E.D PACKAGE IN OUR D.C. DISTRIBUTION HERE AND WITH OUR DIMMING SYSTEM IS THAT WE CAN DIM A VER EFFICIENT LIGHT SOURCE VER CLOSE TO WHAT WE CAN DO OUT OF AN INCANDESCENT SOURCE AND THAT'S THE BIGGEST DIFFERENCE THAT WE SEE NOW, IS THE EXPECTATION OF DIMMING AND CONTROL.

AS A DESIGNER, DAN'S GOAL I GO BEYOND THE PRACTICA APPLICATION OF GOOD LIGHTING

IF WE'RE USING LIGHTING IN WAY THAT CAN CREATE THAT KIND OF RESPONSE THAT SOMEBODY REACTS TO IT -- 'HEY, THIS FEELS BETTER' -- THAT'S WHAT OUR ROLE IS.

SO IT'S NOT JUST USING THE ACTUAL TECHNOLOGY OR TAKIN ADVANTAGE WITH THE EFFICIENC THE TECHNOLOGY IS.

IT IS UNDERSTANDING HOW TO USE IT FROM A DESIGN ASPECT.

WHAT WE HAVE IS A REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY IT'S VERY DISRUPTIVE IT'S A DIFFERENT WAY OF DOIN SOMETHING, AND IT'S A BETTER WAY OF DOING SOMETHING THAT WILL DISRUPT THE MARKET

AS C.E.O., ERIC KNOWS A NEW BUSINESS WITH DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES HAS TREMENDOU CHALLENGES

THERE'S A LOT OF INERTIA IN THE WORLD, AND OVERCOMING THAT TAKES A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT O ENERGY AND CREATIVITY TO D THAT, AND THAT'S WHAT WE'R DOING HERE THE PASSION I HAVE FOR BUILDIN A COMPANY THAT HAS THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR THE EMPLOYEES BU ALSO HAS A MISSION -- IT'S TREMENDOUSLY SATISFYING, BUT IT'S A TEAM.

IT'S NOT JUST ME IT'S ALL OF US TOGETHER.

SO MANY TECH COMPANIES SA THEY ARE RADICALLY DISRUPTING AN INDUSTRY, THAT THERE'S A BIG DISRUPTION HAPPENING AND THEY'RE THE FIRST TO SEE IT.

IS IT REALLY ALL THA REVOLUTIONARY, WHAT'S HAPPENIN THESE DAYS ARE WE TRULY LIVING THROUG MAJOR TRANSITIONS, OR IS I MARKETING GONE AWRY?

HERE TO DISCUSS THESE COSMIC QUESTIONS IS BRIAN HECHT, SERIAL ENTREPRENEUR FOR NEARLY 20 YEARS, A VETERAN OF MULTIPL START-UPS, AND ADVISER TO MANY DIGITAL COMPANIES, INCLUDING OUR OWN DIGITAL TEAM SO, BRIAN, WHAT'S A DISRUPTION AND WHAT'S JUST HYPE

WELL, THERE ARE LOTS OF INNOVATIONS AND VERY FEW DISRUPTIONS.

AN INNOVATION IS SOMETHING THA INTRODUCES A NEW PRODUCT OR AN INNOVATION OF A SERVICE.

SO IT'S SOMETHING THAT'S DON BETTER TODAY THAN IT WAS YESTERDAY.

BUT TO BE A DISRUPTION, YO REALLY HAVE TO FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGE THE WAY A MARKETPLACE WORKS OR THE WAY CONSUMERS ACT IN A MARKETPLACE, AND THAT'S REALLY THE DIFFERENCE.

I MEAN, IF YOU LOOK AT THE START-UP ECONOMY, PEOPLE ARE SAYING THAT THEY'RE DISRUPTING DOG FOOD, AND BY IT'S VERY DEFINITION, DOG FOOD REALL DOESN'T NEED TO BE DISRUPTED

ALL RIGHT, SO, THIS YEAR, GOING BACK -- SPEAKING O MARKETPLACES, WE HAD STORIES O DIFFERENT PROGRAMS ABOUT HOW BITCOIN WAS CHANGING AND DISRUPTING CURRENCY MARKETS.

YEAH.

WELL, BITCOIN IS AN ALTERNAT CURRENCY THEY CALL THEM CRYPTOCURRENCIE SOMETIMES.

AND THE PROBLEM IS, IS THA GOVERNMENTS DON'T RECOGNIZE THEM AND MAJOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS DON'T RECOGNIZE THEM SO IT'S AN INNOVATION RIGHT NOW.

BUT HOW DOES IT BECOME A DISRUPTER, WHICH REQUIRES THAT MARKETPLACES REALLY USE THEM WELL, THERE ARE A FEW COMPANIE RIGHT NOW THAT ARE SORT OF LUBRICATING THAT CHANGE.

ONE OF THEM IS CALLE BLOCKCHAIN, AND WHAT THEY'RE DOING IS THEY ARE MAKING IT EASY FOR CONSUMERS TO CREATE WALLET, AND YOU NEED A WALLE FOR BITCOINS, BECAUSE, YOU KNOW, THERE'S NOT DOLLARS AND CENTS.

RIGHT

IT HAS TO BE DEEPLY ENCRYPTED AND DEEPLY PRIVATE THE WALLET IS PART OF TH INFRASTRUCTURE THAT YOU AND NEED TO BE ABLE TO USE BITCOINS.

OKAY, SO YOU GOT A WALLET.

WHAT HAPPENS THEN?

YEAH.

THERE'S NOTHING IN IT THEN YOU NEED TO GO TO ANOTHER COMPANY.

ONE THAT I FOUND IS CALLED PURSE.

AND WHAT THEY ALLOW YOU TO DO IS PURCHASE BITCOINS, TRADE THEM IN AN EXCHANGE RATE, JUST LIKE YO WOULD WITH FOREIGN CURRENCIES, AND THEN USE IT TO SPEND O SOMETHING REAL SO I WENT THROUGH IT, AND ACTUALLY ACQUIRED BITCOINS THA I COULD THEN SPEND ON AMAZON AND, IN FACT, THE COMPANY PURS IS OFFERING A DISCOUNT -- A 20 DISCOUNT ON AMAZON AS A WAY OF INCENTIVIZING PEOPLE TO ACTUALLY USE BITCOINS, NOT JUST ACCUMULATE THEM.

IT'S NOT THAT CONSUMER FRIENDLY.

I TRIED DOING IT IT TOOK A FEW STEPS, AND IT WA A LITTLE ABSTRACT, BUT IT CAN BE DONE

VERSUS AMAZON RIGHT NOW, WH JUST SAYS, 'PUT IN YOUR CREDIT CARD.'

THEN IT'S ONE CLICK.

THAT'S RIGHT.

EVEN PayPal IS REALLY JUST ONE STEP AWAY FROM A CREDIT CARD THIS IS REALLY SOMETHING FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT.

OKAY.

AND WE'VE ALSO -- THIS LAS YEAR, WE'VE TALKED A LOT ABOUT THE SHARING ECONOMY.

WE'VE TALKED ABOUT WHAT' HAPPENING WITH COMPANIES LIK AIRBNB OR LYFT AND UBER THAT ARE IN THESE MARKETS ARE THEY DISRUPTERS OR JUS INNOVATORS

WELL, IT THINK AIRBNB's A GREAT EXAMPLE.

I DO THINK THAT'S A DISRUPTER.

AND LET'S TAKE IT IN CONTRAST TO 10 YEARS AGO, WHEN THE TRAVE COMPANIES LIKE hotels.com, EXPEDIA, PRICELINE CAME UP THOSE ARE REALLY JUST WAYS O HAVING A BETTER, YOU KNOW, BUYING-AND-SELLING EXPERIENCE, MORE TRANSPARENCY.

BUT AIRBNB REALLY, IN TH MARKETPLACE, TAKES SOMETHING THAT YOU COULD NOT MONETIZ PREVIOUSLY -- YOUR OWN HOME -- AND MAKES IT ABLE TO B MONETIZED.

AND, IN MY MIND, THAT IS A TRANSFORMATION OF A MARKET WHICH EQUALS DISRUPTION RATHER THA JUST INNOVATION.

OKAY, AND ARE UBER AND LYFT JUST THE BEGINNINGS OF HOW TRANSPORTATION CAN BE CHANGED?

SURE.

I MEAN, I THINK THE KEY TO DISRUPTION IS THAT YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT'S NEXT SO, SURE, I THINK UBER -- YO COULD CALL IT -- MAYBE IT'S JUST A BETTER WAY TO HAIL A CAB OR BLACK-CAR SERVICE.

BUT I THINK, YOU KNOW, DISRUPTIONS ARE OFTEN CAUSED NOT BY COMPANIES THAT SET OUT TO DISRUPT BY THE CUMULATIV EFFECT, INSTEAD, OF INNOVATIONS, THAT THEN SOMEHOW COME TOGETHE FOR A SYNERGY, AND SUDDENLY TH SOCIETY'S WORKING IN A DIFFERENT WAY.

SO I CAN'T PREDICT HOW UBER' GOING TO DO THAT OR LYFT BUT I SUSPECT, GIVEN THE PACE OF CHANGE, THAT SOMETHING WIL ARISE.

WHAT ABOUT THE SECURITY ABOUT ALL OF THIS INFORMATION THAT WE'RE SHARING WITH DIFFERENT COMPANIES, WHETHER IT'S IN THI SORT OF TRANSPORTATION SPACE WHETHER IT'S IN THE CURRENCY SPACE?

OUR INFORMATION IS UNDERNEAT ALL THIS

YEAH, I MEAN, I THINK WHA WE'RE SEEING IS A REAL BOTTOM-UP REVOLUTION IN PRIVACY AN SECURITY I MEAN, THIS PAST YEAR, WE'V SEEN SECURITY BREACHES FOR COMPANIES LIKE TARGET AN HOME DEPOT THOSE HAVE REALLY HIT HOME T CONSUMERS, AND THEY'RE BEGINNING TO INFLUENCE THE CHOICES WE'RE MAKING YOU KNOW, IF YOU THINK ABOUT THE PAST, HOW DO WE DECIDE WHA PRODUCTS OR SERVICES TO CONSUME?

IT WAS BASED ON PRICE OR VARIETY OR SERVICE BUT LET'S TAKE IN THE LAST YEA A COMPANY LIKE SNAPCHAT.

IT'S EFFECTIVELY A REPLACEMENT FOR TEXT MESSAGING, AND IT STARTED OUT WITH KIDS AND TEEN TAKING PICTURES THAT THEY WANTED TO EVAPORATE IN A FEW SECONDS.

BUT NOW MAINSTREAM CONSUMERS ARE BEGINNING TO USE IT.

WHY?

BECAUSE EVEN THOUGH TEXT MESSAGING IS A PERFECTLY GOO PRODUCT, IT'S EASY TO USE, PEOPLE ARE NOT COMFORTABLE WIT THEIR MESSAGES LIVING IN THE CLOUD FOREVER.

THEY KNOW THOSE CAN BE, YO KNOW, HACKED AND THEY CAN BE RELEASED TO THE PUBLIC SO THEY'RE CHOOSING SOMETHIN LIKE SNAPCHAT, BECAUSE THEY WANT THEIR TEXT MESSAGES TO DISAPPEAR, ALONG WITH THEI ENTIRE TRAIL ONLINE, AND THAT IS FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGING THE WAY CONSUMERS ARE SELECTIN PRODUCTS

OKAY.

AND SNAPCHAT, ALSO, I THIN THERE WAS A LAWSUIT OR SOMETHING WHERE THEY HAD TO KIND O EVENTUALLY REVEAL THAT, WELL TECHNICALLY YOUR PICTURE MIGHT EXIST -- SOME COPY OF IT SOMEWHERE, RIGHT

RIGHT. WELL, IT DOES.

NOTHING TRULY, TRULY DISAPPEARS.

IT'S ALWAYS ON A SERVER OR I THE CLOUD SOMEWHERE.

BUT THIS ALSO IS AN INTERESTIN QUESTION OF, WHAT IS THE POWER OF THE GOVERNMENT TO DISRUPT THE DISRUPTION SO WE ALL THINK THAT THERE'S THIS NEW TECHNOLOGY HERE THA CHANGES THE WAY WE THINK BUT, WITH ONE SUBPOENA, IT'S POSSIBLE THAT THE GOVERNMENT COULD UNDO THAT, AND THAT'S AN ETHICAL QUESTION

ARE THERE GOOD YEARS OR BAD YEARS FOR DISRUPTION ARE THERE THE CERTAIN TYPES OF PRECONDITIONS THAT CREAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR A COMPANY OR A TECHNOLOGY TO REALLY SHAKE UP FIELD, LIKE THIS 8,000 BUCKS O A MILLION BUCKS FOR -- 8 MILLION BUCKS FOR 1,000 POUNDS IN SPACE

RIGHT THIS IS WHERE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE START-UP ECONOMY AND DISRUPTION REALLY COMES IN INNOVATION IS A PRECURSOR TO DISRUPTION SO IF YOU THINK ABOUT THE EARL 2000s, WHICH WAS THE YEARS AFTER THE DOT-COM BOOM, PEOPLE WER NOT INVESTING.

VENTURE CAPITAL WAS NO INVESTING IN THE KIND OF START-UPS THAT FUELED TH INNOVATION SO, AGAIN, I THINK THERE'S A OVERABUNDANCE OF COMPANIES THA ARE SETTING OUT TO DISRUPT THINGS IF THEY JUST SET OUT TO INNOVATE THINGS, THE DISRUPTION COMES A A FACTOR WITH THAT

OKAY. ALL RIGHT BRIAN HECHT, THANKS SO MUCH FO JOINING US

THANK YOU

AFTER THREE YEARS O DECONSTRUCTION, TW HYDROELECTRIC DAMS IN WASHINGTON STATE ARE GONE IN THE LARGES DAM REMOVAL PROJECT IN U.S HISTORY.

THE SEDIMENT THAT'S BEEN HEL BEHIND THOSE DAMS FOR NEARLY A CENTURY IS BEING RELEASED, LEADING TO SURPRISING CHANGES.

TAKE A LOOK.

THE FIRST TIME TOM ROORDA FLEW OVER THE ELWHA RIVER EIGH YEARS AGO, IT WAS FOR WORK HE WAS TAKING LAND-SURVEY PHOTOS FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION -- PHOTOS THAT WILL BE USED TO HELP GUIDE THE HISTORIC REMOVAL O TWO HYDROELECTRIC DAMS NOW HE FLIES OVER THE ELWHA FO A VERY DIFFERENT REASON.

IT'S MY ESCAPE.

I CAN LEAVE THE OFFICE AND LEAVE ALL THE PRESSURE OF SURVEYIN AND WORKING AND GET IN THE AIRPLANE AND FLY FOR 20 MINUTE AND JUST BE TOTALLY RELAXED.

OVER THE LAST THREE YEARS WHILE THE DAMS WERE SLOWLY DISMANTLED, ROORDA HAD ONE O THE MOST UNIQUE PERSPECTIVES HE'S WITNESSED PROFOUND CHANGES.

A GIANT PLUME OF SAND AND MU NOW EXTENDS FROM THE MOUTH O THE RIVER.

UNTIL I STARTED TAKING THES PICTURES, NO ONE HAD ANY IDE HOW MUCH SEDIMENT WAS COMING DOWN, HOW FAR IT EXTENDED OU INTO THE STRAIT.

SO FAR, ABOUT THREE MILLION CUBIC YARDS OF SEDIMENT, ENOUG TO FILL MORE THAN 300,000 DUMP TRUCKS, HAS BEEN RELEASED FROM BEHIND THE DAMS, AND THAT'S ONLY 16% OF WHAT'S EXPECTED TO BE DELIVERED DOWNSTREAM IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS ALL THAT SEDIMENT HAS ALREAD RESHAPED THE MOUTH OF THE ELWHA, MOVING IT NORTH BY ABOUT 300 FEET AND CHANGING ITS DEPTH BY ABOUT 50 FEET.

JUST TWO YEARS AGO, THIS ARE WAS COVERED WITH SMOOTH STON COBBLES.

IT'S SINCE BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO LONG STRETCHES OF SAND SHORELINE.

ALL RIGHT. READY?

ANNE SHAFFER STUDIES TH SO-CALLED NEARSHORE AREA, WHER THE ELWHA'S FRESHWATER MEETS THE SALT-WATER TIDES SHE'S BEEN EAGER FOR SEDIMENT TO REPLENISH THIS AREA.

ALL OF THE SEDIMENT THA WOULD OTHERWISE HAVE BEE DELIVERED FROM THE RIVER WAS HELD BEHIND THE DAMS AND SO WE WENT INTO THIS ERA O SIGNIFICANT SEDIMENT STARVATION.

TODAY, SHE LEADS A TEAM O RESEARCHERS WHO ARE TRYING T FIND OUT WHAT CREATURES AR MOVING IN TO THIS NEW HABITAT.

THIS PLACE IS LIKE CHRISTMAS.

YOU KNOW, EVERY DAY YOU COME OUT HERE, IT'S SOMETHING NEW

THESE BAGS MAY HOLD EVIDENC OF NEW LIFE.

BACK AT THE LAB, THE TEAM WILL SIFT THROUGH THE SAND, SEARCHING FOR SIGNS THE TINY FISH AR USING THIS AREA AS SPAWNIN GROUNDS.

QUITE LOVELY.

SHAFFER IS HOPING THA SPECIES LIKE SAND LAUNCE AND SURF SMELT WILL START TO CAL THIS PLACE HOME.

THESE NEARSHORE FISH ARE A TOP FOOD SOURCE FOR YOUNG SALMON AND THEY'RE VERY PARTICULA ABOUT WHERE THEY LAY THEIR EGGS.

THEY HAVE A VERY FINE-GRAIN SEDIMENT THAT THEY REQUIRE T LAY THEIR EGGS ON.

AND IF YOU LOOK AROUND, YOU SE THAT WE'RE NOW COMPLETEL SURROUNDED BY EXACTLY THE GRAI SIZE THAT SALMON NEED TO SPAWN

ALL THIS SEDIMENT IS IDEA FOR BUILDING NEARSHORE HABITAT BUT SOME WONDER WHETHER TH WATER IS TOO MURKY FOR RETURNING SALMON SEDIMENT CAN CLOG AND IRRITATE THEIR GILLS AND MAKE I DIFFICULT TO FIND FOOD BUT SHAFFER ISN'T CONCERNED.

SALMON ARE BRILLIANT.

THEY HAVE EVOLVED OVER A MILLENNIA.

SO SALMON CAN DEAL WITH IT IF THEY'RE GIVEN A CHANCE TO ACCLIMATE TO IT, THEY WILL

TODAY THE DAMS ARE COMPLETELY GONE AND AS SEDIMENT CONTINUES TO TRAVEL DOWNSTREAM, TOM ROORD WILL BE THERE TO PHOTOGRAPH IT

IT'S FUN TO WATCH IT.

THERE'S STILL AN AWFUL LOT O SEDIMENT UP THERE.

I THINK IT'S GONNA DO THIS FOR THE NEXT 5 OR 10 YEARS

ACCORDING TO DATA FROM TH BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, BY 2020, THERE WILL BE 1.4 MILLIO NEW COMPUTER SCIENCE JOBS BU NOT ENOUGH COMPUTER SCIENC STUDENTS TO FILL THOSE POSITIONS.

HOW DO WE CLOSE THE GAP?

ONE AFTER-SCHOOL CLUB IN UTAH IS HELPING BY GETTING KIDS THINKING AND CREATING HERE'S A LOOK.

SO, THIS IS CACHE MAKERS.

IT'S A CLUB.

IT'S A 4-H CLUB OF KIDS.

WE HAVE ABOUT 40 KID PARTICIPATING IN AN AFTER-SCHOOL GROUP.

SO CACHE MAKERS 4-H CLUB WAS STARTED WITH THE IDEA THAT T GET KIDS INVOLVED IN STEM -- SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATH -- SO THAT THEY COULD FIND SOMETHIN THEY'RE PASSIONATE ABOUT SO WE HAVE FOCUSED O PROGRAMMING, ROBOTICS, 3-D DESIGN AND PRINTING.

WE HAVE A LASER CUTTER AND THE MICROCONTROLLERS

HERE'S AN ULTRASONIC SENSOR IT MEASURES HOW FAR AWAY SOMETHING IS SO, I'M MAKING A PROJECT THA SAYS, 'WELL, IF SOMETHING IS THIS FAR AWAY, TURN ON L.E.D.s,' WHICH I DON'T HAVE IN THERE YET.

'AND IF IT'S FARTHER AWAY THAN THIS, THEN TURN OFF BOTH O THEM.'

AND I'M PLANNING ON PUTTING THEM ON A BAT ON MY FRONT DOOR, S THAT WHEN PEOPLE GET CLOSE, TH L.E.D.s ARE GOING TO BE TH BAT'S EYES, SO THEY'LL TURN ON AND THEY'LL BE LIKE, 'WHOA!'

AND I DESIGNED THE TOP OF THIS, AND I CUT IT OUT OF LASER CUTTER AND THEN I GOT THE PHONE STUFF AND THE BELT, AND I GOT TH L.E.D.s, AND I JUST INSERTED THE L.E.D.s, AND I CAN CONTROL I WITH THE REMOTE.

THIS IS MY APP.

AND RIGHT NOW IT LETS YOU DRAW ON AN IMAGE.

YOU CAN CHANGE THE COLOR IT CHANGES THE COLOR WHEN I TAP, IT MAKES A CIRCLE.

AND I CAN CHANGE THE SIZE OF THE CIRCLE BY MOVING THIS LIGHTER.

THAT WAS THE HARD PART WHEN CODED THIS [ ELECTRONIC MUSIC PLAYS ]

SO THE PARTICIPANTS IN TH CLASS ARE ACTUALLY PROPOSING A CHALLENGE.

IF A KID DECIDES THEY WANT T WORK ON SOMETHING, THEY COME U WITH SOMETHING COOL, THEY CA POSE IT AS A CHALLENGE TO OTHERS AND SHARE WHAT THEY'VE DONE AS AN EXAMPLE OF THAT FIRST ON COMING UP WITH DESIGN AND THEN GOING AHEAD AN BUILDING IT, IMPLEMENTING IT AND SHOWING IT OFF

WHAT'S BEEN EXCITING IS T SEE THE KIDS JUST GRAVITATE TO THE STUFF AND HOW EASY THEY PICK IT UP.

AND SO WHAT WE'VE LEARNED IS THAT THESE KIDS ARE READY FO THIS STUFF

TAKE ONE OF THESE, AND YO CONNECT IT TO EARTH DOWN HERE.

RIGHT THERE, THAT SAYS 'EARTH.

HOW DO YOU CONNECT IT

JUST LIKE THAT.

I DON'T GET THAT.

AND THEN WHEN YOU TOUCH THIS, YOU'RE NOW GROUNDED, IS WHAT THEY CALL IT I WANT TO MAKE THIS PLAY-DOH BASICALLY A SPACE BAR.

WHAT I DO, I CONNECT ANOTHER ALLIGATOR CLIP TO TH SPACE PLACE RIGHT THERE.

AND THEN I CONNECT THE OTHER END OF THIS...

OH, YEAH.

...TO THE PLAY-DOH.

SO NOW WHEN YOU PUSH IT... IT MAKES A SPACE

MY BELIEF IS THAT WE'RE BOR MAKERS WE NEED TO FOSTER THAT AND NOT SQUASH IT OUT.

AT A YOUNGER AGE, I THINK IT'S EASIER TO TAP INTO THEIR CURIOSITY, TO THEIR CREATIVITY TO THEIR MOTIVATION.

I BELIEVE THAT TO PURSUE CAREER LIKE AS A PROGRAMMER OR GET INTO ROBOTICS AND THOSE KIND OF CAREERS, YOU NEED TO STAR EARLY.

...A COMPUTER TECHNICIAN TO GET THERE, AND THEN CHANGE OVE TO SOMETHING, LIKE DISNE IMAGINEERING, ACTUALLY IT'S LIKE A DREAM JOB.

I DON'T KNOW.

MAYBE AN ARCHITECT

I WANT TO WORK AT U.S.U. AN BE A PROGRAMMER FOR THEI COMPUTERS.

OR IF I DON'T DO THAT, THEN WANT TO BECOME AN NBA BASKETBALL PLAYER [ ROCK MUSIC PLAYS ]

AND THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS TIME FOR MORE ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION, VISIT OU WEBSITE.

YOU CAN ALSO CHECK US OUT ON FACEBOOK AND JOIN TH CONVERSATION ON TWITTER.

UNTIL NEXT TIME, I'M HARI SREENIVASAN THANKS FOR WATCHING.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WA MADE POSSIBLE BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.