SciTech Now Episode 16

Episode sixteen of SciTech Now brings you the latest breakthroughs in science, technology and innovation. We meet the makers of Etsy, learn how St. Louis is updating their aging sewer system, and find out how secure your data really is.

TRANSCRIPT

> COMING UP, A HUMANIZATION OF E-COMMERCE

WE'RE REALLY CHANGING THE WAY THE WHOLE ECONOMY WORKS AN MAKING IT MORE PERSONAL AND MORE SUSTAINABLE AND MORE HUMAN

> THE NEED FOR CYBER SECURITY.

> UNLOCKING THE MYSTERIES OF THE HUMAN BRAIN.

EVERY MENTAL PROCESS FROM HITTING A BACKHAND IN TENNIS T WRITING SYMPHONY COMES FROM TH BRAIN.

THE REST IS GOING INTO TH RIVER?

IT'S ALL AHEAD.

> FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM I MADE POSSIBLE BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.

WELCOME TO 'SCI TECH NOW.

LET'S GET STARTED.

E-COMMERCE, THE BUYING AND SELLING OF PRODUCTS VIA TH INTERNET IS EXPECTED TO GENERATE $5.5 TRILLION THIS YEAR ALONE.

SUCH HIGH VOLUME OF SALES ON THE INTERNET HAS GIVEN SMALL BUSINESSES THE PLATFORM TO G NATIONAL AND EVEN INTERNATIONAL.

WE GO INSIDE ETSY.

Reporter: AFTER RUBIN LOS HIS JOB IN THE FASHION INDUSTRY, HE LAUNCHED HIS OWN WOMEN' CLOTHING LINE, DOMESTICS NEW YORK, IN 2012.

HE SKIPS THE BRICK AND MORTA STORE FRONT IN FAVOR O E-COMMERCE

YOU CAN VERY CONTROL OVER YOUR PRODUCT AND YOU HAVE MORE CONTROL OVER SELLING

Reporter: DOMESTICS NEW YOR IS AMONG 28% OF U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES THAT SELL ONLINE.

AND TO SET UP SHOP, HE CHOSE ETSY

I SAW HOW BIG THEY WERE ALL OVER THE WORLD, SO I THOUGHT I WAS A GOOD WAY TO TOUCH TH BASES ON DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AND NOT JUST THE U.S IT'S BEEN THE MOST EXCITIN EXPERIENCE I'VE HAD.

Reporter: E-COMMERCE TOOK OFF WITH THE LAUNCH OF EBAY AN AMAZON IN 1995 TEN YEARS LATER ETSY WAS BOR WHEN SOMEONE COULDN'T FIND THE PLACE TO SELL HIS CRAFT.

IT HAS GROWN TO HOST SELLERS FROM MORE THAN 200 COUNTRIES CHAD DICKERSON SAID $1.3 BILLION WORTH OF GOODS WERE SOLD O ETSY

IT IS A HUGE NUMBER O INDEPENDENT ARTISANS AROUND TH WORLD WHO WANT TO MAKE SOM MONEY ON ETSY.

IT MAKES IT A SUPER POWERFUL FORCE.

Reporter: THE VENDORS INCLUDE STAY AT HOME MOMS AS WELL AS INDEPENDENT ARTISTS.

SOME WORK ON THEIR CRAFT SPORADICALLY WHILE OTHERS WORK FULL-TIME.

WE STARTED AS A MARKETPLACE THAT'S WHAT MOST PEOPLE KNOW BUT WE'RE CHANGING THE WAY THE WHOLE ECONOMY WORKS, MAKING IT MORE PERSONAL, MORE SUSTAINABLE, AND MORE HUMAN

Reporter: ETSY IS A COMPANY THAT INTEGRATES SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN THEI BUSINESS MODELS.

MORE COMPANIES WILL HAV BUSINESS MODELS LIKE WHAT YO SEE ETSY WHERE THE GOODNESS IS BASED IN THE BUSINESS AND NO JUST ON THE SIDE

IT INTEGRATES SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES TO EVERYDAY TASKS.

IT TOOK TRASH CANS AWAY FROM EVERYBODY'S DESKS.

ETSY'S EMPLOYEES WORK IN TEAMS THAT SPECIALIZE IN A PARTICULA REGION OR CRAFT TO HELP IT VENDORS MAXIMIZE THEIR SALES

WITHIN THE FIRST MONTH, I WAS TALKING TO ADMINISTRATION AT ETSY AND THEY WANTED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT DOMESTICS AND NEW YORK IT'S LIKE A FAMILY THAT'S WHAT I LOVE ABOUT IT.

Reporter: SINCE DOMESTICS LAUNCHED IN 2012, HIS PIECES HAVE BEEN WORN WORLDWIDE

WE CUT OUT EVERYTHING AND HAND IT OFF TO OUR SELLERS ONCE THEY FINISH, WE PICK IT U FROM OUR SELLERS, BRING IT BAC TO OUR STUDIO, PACKAG IT, AN SHIP IT.

Reporter: THEY ARE PART O THE MAKERS MOVEMENT WHO CREATE GOODS AND SHARE IDEAS ON USING TECHNOLOGY LIKE 3D PRINTERS TO PUSH THE BOUNDARIES OF CRAFT MAKING

AS THEIR BUSINESSES GROW AN AS THE TECHNOLOGY GROWS, WE'RE GOING TO KEEP SEEING UNIQU COMBINATIONS OF ALL THES TECHNOLOGIES CREATE ENTIRELY NEW PRODUCT CATEGORIES THAT WE CAN'T EVEN PREDICT

Reporter: HE HAS NO PLANS T LEAVE THE SITE THAT LAUNCHED HIM.

I HAVE SEEN IT GROW SO MUCH IN THE PAST FEW YEARS.

I DON'T THINK I WOULD STRAY AWAY FROM ETSY.

I HAVE MY OWN WEBSITE NOW, BUT MY SHOP PAGE STILL DIRECTS YOU TO ETSY.

> EXPERTS PREDICT BY THE YEA 2018 MOBILE COMMERCE, OR M-COMMERCE, WILL ACCOUNT FOR THE MAJORITY OF ONLINE SALES TO LEARN MORE ABOUT M-COMMERCE GO TO OUR WEBSITE.

> IT SEEMS THAT EVERY DAY WE HEAR ABOUT ANOTHER CYBER SECURITY THREAT.

THE SECURITY OF DIGITAL DATA I SEEMINGLY COMPROMISED AT A ALARMING RATE.

WHAT STEPS DO WE NEED TO TAKE TO PROTECT PERSONAL INFORMATION FROM BEING STOLEN?

JOINING ME NOW IS A PROFESSOR AT CORNELL INSTITUTE WHO FOCUSES ON COMPUTER SECURITY OR PRIVACY WHY ARE WE HEARING ABOUT SO MANY HACKS IN THE LAST FEW WEEKS AN MONTHS

IT'S BECOMING INCREASINGL DIFFICULT TO PROTECT LARGE NETWORKS THEY MAY NOT BE AWARE OF HOW THEY ARE NETWORKED O CONFIGURED THIS IS ONE ISSUE OF INCREASIN COMPLEXITY ANOTHER CHALLENGE IS THE COMPLEXITY OF THE ORGANIZATION ITSELF A LARGE COMPANY HAS A RANGE OF CONTRACTORS WHO HAVE ACCESS TO NETWORK.

THE BREACH AT TARGET ORIGINATE WITH AN HVAC COMPANY ATTACKERS TEND TODAY TO BE RATHER NATION STATES, OR ORGANIZED CRIME, OR BOTH THESE ARE SOME OF THE REASONS.

YET ANOTHER REASON IS A DEARTH OF CYBER SECURITY TALENT WE'RE NOT TRAINING ENOUG PEOPLE WE'RE NOT INVESTING ENOUGH I RESEARCH TO DEVELOP STRONG DEFENSIVE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

IS IT TRUE THAT THE BIGGE THEY ARE, THE HARDER THEY FALL THEY MAY BE BIGGER AND EASIE TARGETS THAN SAY A SMALL MOM AND POP SHOP WHO KNOWS WHERE THE CHECKBOOKS ARE AND KNOWS WHERE THE DIGITAL LOCKS AND KEYS ARE

LARGE ORGANIZATIONS HAV EXPERTS THAT AREN'T AVAILABLE TO MOM AND POP SHOPS.

AND THEY HAVE THE MONEY T HIRE PEOPLE.

IF THEY CAN FIND THEM ANY LARGE SYSTEM HAS ALREADY BEEN BREACHED.

THIS IS THE CHALLENGE THAT DEFENDERS ARE FACING, THE FACT THAT PERIMETERS ARE CRUMBING AND CONSEQUENTLY WE HAVE TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE TRADITIONA FORTRESS LIKE APPROACH O SECURING SYSTEMS

I CAN'T DO ANYTHING STO TARGET OR JCPENNEY FROM BEIN ATTACKED, BUT WHAT CAN I DO TO STOP MY OWN PERSONAL INFORMATION FROM BEING VIOLATED BY A INTRUDER

ONE COMMONLY OFFERED PIECE OF ADVICE IS YOU CHOOSE A STRON PASSWORD CHOOSING A STRONG PASSWORD I GENERALLY A GOOD IDEA, BUT THI IS A PROBLEM THAT HAS TO B SOLVED HOLISTICALLY.

THE REASON YOU HAVE TO CHOOS THIS COMPLICATED PASSWORDS I PARTLY TO PROTECT YOURSELF AND PART TO ENSURE AN ATTACKER CAN'T GUESS YOUR PASSWORD, BUT IT IS TO PROTECT YOU IN CASE THERE'S A BREACH OF YOUR SERVICE PROVIDER.

I HAVE 52 PASSWORDS ON AL THESE DIFFERENT PLACES FROM MY BANK ACCOUNTS TO MY TWITTER TO THIS AND THAT.

IS THERE A WAY TO DEVISE A ALGORITHM?

YOU CAN USE A PASSWOR SOFTWARE THAT WILL MEMORIZE YOUR PASSWORD FOR YOU THEY ARE THE FAST FOOD OR CRUD OIL OF SECURITY.

THEY ARE CHEAP THEY ARE EASY TO DEPLOY.

BUT IN THE LONG RUN, THEY LEAD TO WEAKER SYSTEMS.

YOU NEED TWO FACTO AUTHENTICATION IT WILL DISPLAY A ONE TIME PAS CODE SOMETHING YOU DON'T HAVE T REMEMBER

IF I'M TRYING TO LOG INTO M BANK, I'M GOING TO SEND A TEXT MESSAGE PHONE.

AND IF SOMEBODY DOESN'T HAVE M PHONE, THEY CAN'T GET INTO M BANK

THAT CAN BE QUITE HELPFUL

THANKS SO MUCH.

MY PLEASURE THANK YOU.

> WHAT LIES BENEATH MANY STREETS ACROSS THE COUNTRY IS AN INTRICATE UNSEEN WORLD WE LOOK AT OPPORTUNITIES THA UNDERGROUND WATER SYSTEMS POSE FOR COMMUNITIES.

Reporter: THERE WAS A TIM WHEN A RIVER RAN THROUGH ST.

LOUIS' FOREST PARK, BUT THIS I NOT IT ALL OF THIS IS A RESULT OF CAREFUL PLANNING, LANDSCAPING, AND PLUMBING TO FIND THE REAL REMNANTS OF THE RIVER, YOU HAVE TO HAVE TH METROPOLITAN SERVICE UNLOCK HATCH THAT LEADS TO AN ENGINEERING FEET

THIS IS CLEAN WATER WE'RE LOOKING AT HERE.

IN THE TUNNEL NEXT TO THIS I WHERE THE SEWAGE IS.

Reporter: ST. LOUIS STARTED BUILDING SEWERS IN THE 1850s AFTER THE CHOLERA EPIDEMIC IN FACT IN 1916, THE CIT CELEBRATED A COMPLETION OF A MAJOR PROJECT WITH A FORMA DINNER INSIDE A SEWER TUNNEL BEFORE IT WENT INTO SERVICE.

AND THE CITY KEPT BUILDING BIG EXPENSIVE PROJECTS DESIGNED TO FLUSH EVERYTHING OUT OF THE CITY BUT STILL RIGHT TO THE RIVER

IN 1969 WHEN THIS COUNTRY PUT A MAN ON THE MOON, ONLY 5% O THE WATER IN ST. LOUIS WAS GOING TO A TREATMENT PLANT THIS IS HOW IT WAS DESIGNED.

THIS WAS THE FUNCTION.

IT WAS STATE OF THE ART AT THE TIME

Reporter: BUT IT IS NOT STATE OF THE ART ANYMORE, AND THAT'S A PROBLEM IN ST. LOUIS AND IN LOT OF OLDER CITIES THAT HAV WHAT'S CALLED COMBINED SEWER SYSTEMS.

THE PIPES AND TUNNELS CARR SEWAGE AND STORM WATER AND MOS OF THE TIME IT GOES TO THE TREATMENT PLANT.

BUT BIG RAINSTORMS CAN SEND MORE WATER INTO THE PIPES THAN THEY CAN HANDLE WHERE DOES IT GO WELL, THAT'S THE NEXT STOP O THE TOUR DOWN RIVER FROM THE PARK, TH RIVER TAKES THE FORM OF CONCRETE CHANNEL, BUT IT OFTEN DOESN'T LOOK OR ACT MUCH LIKE RIVER.

AT TIMES LIKE THIS, MOST OF TH WATER IS RUNNING UNDERNEATH IN A BIG SEWER.

WHEN IT GETS FULL INTO A STORM THE SEWER SPILLS OUT INTO TH CONCRETE CHANNEL, BYPASSING TH TREATMENT PLANT AND GOIN STRAIGHT INTO THE MISSISSIPPI.

THIS IS ONE OF THE OVERFLOW POINTS HERE.

IF WE GET TOO MUCH RAIN, THE WATER WILL COME OUT OF HERE AN SPILL INTO THE RIVER AND GO DOWN TO THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

AND THIS IS THE SEWAGE IN HERE

WE ARE STANDING IN A SEWER.

DURING A HEAVIER RAINSTORM, THIS CHAMBER COULD BE EASILY FULL O WATER.

IT NEEDS SOME PLACE TO GO.

IT WILL GO OUT HERE TO THE RIVER.

Reporter: THIS SYSTEM MAY B GOOD FOR PROTECTING BASEMENTS, BUT IT IS BAD FOR TH ENVIRONMENT AND THE EPA AND TH COALITION FOR THE ENVIRONMEN SUED THE SEWER DISTRICT, SAYIN IT WAS IN VIOLATION OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT.

THE DISTRICT SETTLED, AGREEING TO SPEND NEARLY $5 BILLION OVE 23 YEARS TO REMEDY THE SITUATION.

WE'RE GOING TO BE BUILDIN LARGE STORAGE TUNNELS NINE MILES LONG, 200 FEET BELOW GROUND, AND 30 FEET IN DIAMETER.

Reporter: THESE COME WITH A BIG PRICE TAG THAT BUSINESSE AND HOMEOWNERS END UP HELPING TO PAY.

$4 MILLION WORTH.

DOES IT SOLVE THE PROBLEM

NO.

BECAUSE YOU'RE ALWAYS GOING TO HAVE A STORM THAT CAN COME ALONG AND OVERWHELM THE SYSTEM

Reporter: RAIN RUNS OFF THE ROOFTOPS AND INTO THE STREETS.

IT DOESN'T SEEP INTO THE GROUND.

IT RUSHES INTO THE SEWERS.

WHAT IF YOU COULD SLOW THING DOWN HERE?

WELL, AS PART OF THE SETTLEMENT, THE SEWER DISTRICT WILL BE SPENDING MILLIONS ON WHAT IS CALLED GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE.

THE METROPOLITAN SEWE DISTRICT IS IN THE BUSINESS OF BUILDING AND MAINTAINING SEWERS.

IT IS ALSO IN THE BUSINESS O GARDENING.

Reporter: IT WASN'T VER GREEN YET WHEN WE FIRST VISITED, BUT YOU CAN SEE HOW IT WAS BUILD TO CATCH, HOLD, AND ABSORB STORM WATER.

THEY GO INTO THIS BASIN.

A FEW WEEKS LATER, THERE WAS A SPRING DOWNPOUR AND ALL OVER THE CITY THINGS WERE FILLING U FAST BUT IN THE RAIN GARDEN, TH WATER HAD BEEN CAPTURED AND WA FLOWING THROUGH THE ROCKS INTO THE BASIN.

THE IDEA IS TO BUILD MORE OF THESE AND MAKE IT WORK ON LARGE SCALE.

SO IF YOU BUILD THE STUFF YOU NEED TO BUILD, THE TUNNELS THA WILL HANDLE THAT OVERFLO STORAGE AND PUSH IT INTO THE SYSTEM GRADUALLY, AND YO COMBINE IT WITH REDUCING FLOW, DOES THAT SOLVE THE PROBLEM?

IT DOES

Reporter: THIS IS A 20-YEAR PROJECT.

THEY WILL BE WORKING TO IMPROV THE EXISTING SYSTEM.

LET'S GIVE CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE THIS IS A CIVIL ENGINEERIN LANDMARK RIGHT ALONG WITH TH BROOKLYN BRIDGE AND THE PANAMA CANAL.

> IN AN EFFORT TO BETTER UNDERSTAND HOW WE THINK, LEARN AND REMEMBER, PRESIDENT OBAM HAS LAUNCHED THE BRAIN INITIATIVE ORGANIZATIONS AROUND THE COUNTRY ARE TAKING ADVANTAGE OF TH INITIATIVE TO REINVEST IN THEI NEUROSCIENCE FACILITIES.

THE BRAIN IS THE MOST MAGICAL AND COMPLEX STRUCTURE IN THE UNIVERSE IT MAKES US WHO WE ARE, AN EVERY MENTAL PROCESS, FROM HITTING A BACKHAND IN TENNIS T WRITING A SYMPHONY, COMES FROM THAT

Reporter: A NEUROSCIENTIS ARRIVED AT COLUMBIA IN 1974.

WHEN I CAME ALONG, THERE WERE A NUMBER OF VIEWS.

WE NOW HAVE A MUCH MORE SPECIFIC IDEA OF HOW LEARNING OCCURS.

IT INVOLVES CHANGES IN THE STRENGTH OF HOW NERVE CELL COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER.

AWARDED THE NOBLE PRIZE I 2000, DR. CANDELL IS PART OF A LONG-STANDING LEGACY O OUTSTANDING SCIENCE AT COLUMBIA.

THIS IS WHAT MAKES US TRULY HUMAN.

WE NOT ONLY WANT TO UNDERSTAND IT BECAUSE WE WANT TO UNDERSTAND HOW WE FUNCTION.

BUT WHEN YOU THINK OF TH DISEASES THAT HAUNT MANKIND, ALZHEIMER'S, WE WANT T UNDERSTAND IT SO WE CAN DEVELO BETTER TREATMENTS.

YOU CAN SEE HOW THE BASAL CELLS REALLY RADIATE

Reporter: DR. BRUNO AND HIS TEAM AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSIT MEDICAL CENTER RECENTLY MADE A GROUND-BREAKING DISCOVERY ABOU THE CEREBRAL CORTEX.

IT IS THE PART WE'RE PRETTY CERTAIN YOU DO ALL THE SMART STUFF THAT YOU DO IN YOUR DAY.

YOU'RE LOOKING AT ME YOU'RE PROCESSING MY VOICE YOU'RE PLANNING WHAT YOU'R GOING TO GO NEXT DURING THE DAY.

WHAT WE DISCOVERED IS THAT THE CEREBRAL CORTEX ACTUALLY HAS TWO HALVES THERE ARE TWO THERE THAT ARE USING, WE THINK, VERY DIFFEREN TASKS.

CERTAIN PATHWAYS IN THE BRAI FROM ONE OF THESE SYSTEMS WE HAVE IDENTIFIED TO OTHER PARTS OF THE BRAIN IS ACTUALLY THE ROOT PROBLEM IN A PARTICULAR DISEASE AND THE OTHER PART ISN'T.

AND THAT MIGHT GIVE US SOM MEANS FOR FOCUSING DOWN ON EXACTLY WHAT TYPES OF CELLS, WHICH PROTEINS, WHICH GENES AR ACTUALLY AT THE ROOT OF TH PROBLEM IN A PARTICULA DISORDER

Reporter: TO MAKE THESE DISCOVERIES, DR. BRUNO RELIE HEAILY ON DEVELOPMENTS I TECHNOLOGY

STUDYING THE BRAIN IS REALLY, REALLY CHALLENGING BECAUSE YOU WANT TO HAVE IT INTACT AND WORKING WHILE YOU OBSERVE IT WE'RE CONSTANTLY LOOKING FOR NEW TOOLS.

Reporter: THEY ARE WORKING ON 3D IMAGING TO BETTER UNDERSTAN WHO YOU BRAIN CELLS MOVE FRO ONE NEURON TO THE NEXT ONE DAY HER WORK MAY CRACK THE CODE TO DISEASES LIKE AUTISM

AUTISM FEATURES DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN LANGUAGE IF WE COULD ROLL BACK TIME ESSENTIALLY AND REOPEN CRITICA LEARNING IN SONG BIRDS, WE CAN TRY TO FIGURE OUT THE INTERNAL BIOCHEMICAL AND CIRCUIT LEVE CUES THAT ALLOW AN ANIMAL WH HAS VOCALIZATIONS TO DO IT

Reporter: THIS IS PART OF THE MIND BRAIN BEHAVIOR INSTITUT DEDICATED TO THE STUDY OF TH BRAIN.

THIS MARRIAGE GAVE RISE TO NEW SCIENCE, WHICH ALLOWS US T EXPLORE IN GREAT DETAIL ALL OF THE GREAT QUESTIONS THAT RELAT TO MIND AND BRAIN, HOW WE THINK, HOW WE FEEL, HOW WE EXPERIENCE HOW WE REMEMBER THINGS A LOT OF THESE THINGS ARE BEIN APPROACHED IN A UNIFIED WAY.

> AND THAT WRAPS IT UP FOR THIS TIME.

FOR MORE ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION, VISIT OU WEBSITE.

YOU CAN ALSO CHECK US OUT ON FACEBOOK AND JOIN TH CONVERSATION ON TWITTER.

THANK YOU FOR WATCHING

FUNDING WAS MADE POSSIBLE B CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS STATION.