The United States is the largest producer of electronic waste, generating nearly 8 billion tons a year. In this story from our environmental public media partner, EarthFix, we follow a team of investigators using GPS technology to track America’s waste trail.
What happens to America’s electronic waste?
The United States is the largest producer of electronic waste, generating almost 8 billion tons a year.
Where does all this electronic waste end up?
We follow a team of investigators who are using GPS technology to track America's waste trail.
We're basically trying to stop the rich countries from dumping their hazardous waste on the poorer countries.
In this case, Hong Kong.
To get inside, a local driver and translator posed as e-waste buyers.
[ Speaking Chinese ]
With people buying new computers and other electronics more frequently than ever, electronic waste is now the fastest-growing waste stream in the world.
On top of that, it contains toxic materials that can poison people and the environment.
This investigation began months ago, when Puckett's team put GPS tracking devices inside 200 old computers, printers, and TVs.
Then they dropped them off at locations across the country -- at recycling facilities, donation centers, and electronics take-back programs, including some of the industry's most reputable companies.
We sat back and said, 'Where are they gonna go?'
And, uh, the little devices went out and spoke to us, saying, 'This is where I am.'
Puckett's group partnered with Carlo Ratti of the Senseable City Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Tracking is gonna be the first step in order to design a better system.
One of the surprising things we discovered is how far waste travels.
We see these kind of global e-waste flows that actually almost cover the whole -- the whole planet.
Each device traveled an average of about 2,500 miles, and around a third of the tracked computers were exported.
Of those, most ended up here.
Hong Kong is home to one of the world's busiest ports.
Ships deliver more cargo than is possible to inspect.
As a result, Hong Kong has a reputation for being a transit point for illegal trade and smuggling of all kinds.
Turn right onto Tin Sau Road.
Most of the exported tracked devices led Puckett to a little-known part of Hong Kong called the New Territories.
It's really a frontier.
It's really cowboy land out there.
Puckett followed one tracked printer here, to a place that calls itself a farm.
I bet it's a great farm in there.
You would have no idea that there was a huge scrapyard there until you look over the fence.
Inside, they found printers being taken apart by immigrant workers.
I'm looking for asset tags to tell me where the material came from.
I look for the environmental harm issues.
I look for the workstations to see how those workers might be exposed.
Many of the workers handle hazardous material without protective gear.
One concern, printer toner, a probable carcinogen.
There's no protections of this labor force.
There's no occupational laws that are gonna protect them.
Jackson Lau is the head of the Hong Kong Recycling Association.
He runs a licensed recycling facility in the New Territories, and he says the junkyards in the area that import e-waste are unlicensed and unregulated.
[ Speaking Chinese ]
Look at the tubes.
Many, many tubes, thrown on the ground here.
The white fluorescent tubes light up LCD screens.
Each of them contains mercury, and even a tiny amount can be a neurotoxin.
Day in and day out, these workers are completely oblivious to this hazard, are smashing these.
The tubes are breaking right in front of their faces.
And mercury is very toxic.
[ Speaking Chinese ] Uh, I asked him that if he knows that the white tubes are dangerous.
He had no idea.
The United States is the only developed nation that hasn't ratified an international treaty to stop first-world countries from dumping e-waste on developing nations.
Other developed nations set e-waste collection mandates and require electronics manufacturers to pay for domestic e-waste processing.
Further, the United States has no federal laws requiring electronics to be recycled.
Half of states allow electronics to be dumped in landfills.
John Shegerian is the C.E.O.
of Electronics Recycling International, the largest e-waste recycling company in the United States.
It takes hundreds of employees in each facility to do the real work of electronic recycling.
He says that some recyclers are exporting to cut costs, because in the last 2 years, their biggest source of revenue has plummeted.
At the height of the market, when we would go to sell steel, plastic, aluminum, gold, silver, palladium, copper, we were getting 14 to 15 cents a pound more than we are today.
Dell Reconnect, an exciting program that makes getting rid of old technology easy.
Dell was the first major computer manufacturer to ban the export of non-working electronics to developing countries.
They partnered with Goodwill, allowing people to drop off old computers of any brand for free to be refurbished or recycled.
The electronics are either dismantled on-site or sent to Dell's recycling partners.
Dell says that more than 400 million pounds of e-waste has been diverted from U.S. landfills because of their program.
But the Basel Action Network and MIT's investigation concluded that tracking devices placed in old computers and dropped off at participating Goodwill locations ended up in Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, and Thailand.
Beth Johnson manages Dell's program.
If there's something that did not follow the system, we would certainly want to know about it, and we would certainly take corrective action.
In a written statement, Goodwill Industries said it's committed to responsible recycling and encouraged its member organizations, which are autonomous, to review their contracts with Dell.
Back in Hong Kong, Puckett finds more clues to the scale of the problem.
Laptop with an LCD screen ending up here in Hong Kong, in New Territories, from the Los Angeles school system.
Puckett finds electronics from U.S. police departments, jails, hospitals, and libraries.
The government is always trying to save taxpayers' money, so they are obliged, in some cases, to always do the cheapest thing.
For now, market forces are driving e-waste exports.
Just throwing it on the bank here.
Without a federal law banning the export of e-waste, there's little incentive for the industry to change.